The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam By David M. Goldenberg

  Note too that the early Arab (not African) leader 'Ubada inb al-Samit is described as a black (aswad) man, and consider the expression used by the Arabic writers to…

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Historical References on the Black African Skin color of the original Berber Tribes

Dana Reynolds-Marniche provided several sources defining the original Berbers. Original Berbers here correspond with the Berbers imported into the Americas branded in slave legislation under the term "Negroes" in legislation…

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