In 1042 the Berbers who had also converted to Islam conquered Ghana.

“The Ghanaian people were mostly animist, but Islam filtered into the Empire and some of them became Muslim. The people were all living in peace and harmony when Mudu Ture became Muslim. Others who had also converted to Islam encouraged him to take the power from the traditional ruling Cise clan.”

“According to the oral tradition, the Diane clan and the Koma clan supported Mudu Ture, but the rest remained faithful to the descendants of the Dinga family, who represented the established traditional power at that time. Nevertheless, after some time, Mudu Ture succeeded and he became emperor. Because he had challenged the traditional established power, however, he could not have the Kaya Maga title (which was the highest title of kingship).”

“Therefore, he governed under his own name. In 1042 the Berbers who had also converted to Islam conquered Ghana. Their chief, Yaya Ibn Omar, took the city of Aoudaghost in 1054. His successor, Aboubakar, fought more than fifteen years against Bessi Tunkara, who was the ruling Emperor then. Finally, in 1076 Ghana was totally destroyed by the Almoravid Berbers. Internal divisions among Ghana’s people facilitated this conquest.”

“However, in 1087 the Berber chief was killed. Once againGhana recovered its freedom but the Empire had been broken down and weakened by internal decay. The Berber occupation created a great deal of trouble throughout the Empire. Because Islam had become the religion of the ruling elite, it was imposed on all citizens. Consequently, the vassal kingdoms like Diara, Kingui, Kaniaga, and Mail, which were animist, broke away from Ghana.”

“That is how Ghana became a small kingdom once again. Many people who were hostile to Islam migrated further south or towards the east. They bandoned their commercial trade, agriculture, and raising cattle activities, and consequently, the country became poor. The Empire was thus largley depopulatied and its military power also declined. One the other hand, the animist areast, where people remained in place, prospered and developed. This waws precisely the isutation of the Soso poeple, who were animists led by Sumanguru Kante, who took over Ghana early in the 8th century.” 

“Ghana, after the invasion of 1076, was no longer the same kingdom. The cradle of future Kingdom of Mali, which later was to become the Empire of Mali, was then called Mande. The Mande Kingdom was under Soso domination spearheaded by Sumanguru Kante.”

“The Mande Kings at that time were: Djigui Bilali, Musa or Allakan, as he was known by his nickname, and Nare Famakan Keita. It would be Sundiata, son of Nare Famakan Keita, who would fight the Soso and establsihed the Mali Kingdom, once and for all.”

Source: Balancing Written History with Oral Traditions: The Legacy of the Songhoy People By Hassimi Oumarou Maiga