Three principal tribes of Aethiopians, the Hesperi, Garamantes, and Indians

Dana Reynolds Marniche article published an article titled: AFRO-ASIAN DISPERSALS: How Scholarship has Come Around to the Truth about the Roots of Semitic Speech and Culture  which provides the following commentary: “The name Berber was thus known not only in Africa but throughout “the Orient” as a name that applied to certain populations of Africans of the Horn, Sudan, and the Sahel from an ancient period. It is also a fact that Berbers and other Africans, in fact, stretching to the Atlantic in the ancient world were often indiscriminately referred to as Indi, Arabians, Ethiopians and thus “according to Isidore in the ninth book, there are three principal tribes of Aethiopians, the Hesperi, Garamantes, and Indi (Burke, 2002, p. C-331).”

“In consideration of the Greek and Roman acquaintance with the Negroid type as revealed by the literary evidence, and in view of the use of the word Ethiopian, it is reasonable to assume that a given passage refers to a Negroid type in the following instances: (2) whenever a consideration of the evidence indicates that Afer, Indus, or Maurus is the equivalent of Aethiops; (4) whenever an individual is designated as belonging to one of the several Ethiopian tribes such as Blemmyes, Megabari, Troglodytes, Nubae, et cetera.”

Source: Afer, Indian, and Aethiops are Equivalents of Maurus

Philostratus claimed that “The Indians are the wisest of mankind. The Ethiopians are a colony of them”. Source: Philostratus Vit. Apol. II:33f.  

Source: Edmund Dene Morel, pages 141–142


“Black” in the study titled Black Lives in the English Archives, 1500–1677 is thus “Negro,” “Ethiopian,” “Egyptian,” “moor”/“blackamoor,” “barbaree”/“barbaryen,” and “Indian” (including orthographic variations thereof for all of them). The study’s use of the word also includes geographic names by themselves, such as Guyana or Guinea, where for the early modern English they function openly or implicitly as regional identifers of people of color. Anthony Gerard Barthelemy in Black Face, Maligned Race (pp. 1–17), Michael Neill in “‘Mulattoes,’ ‘Blacks,’ and ‘Indian Moors’” (pp. 273–77), and Margo Hendricks in “Surveying Race” (pp. 15–20) all offer useful demonstrations of the propriety of adhering to a taxonomic looseness in tracing sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English constructions of colored people. At the same time, hidden in the vast archives of parish churches within London and without, all through the Tudor and Stuart reigns, are voluminous cryptic citations of “nigro,” “neger,” “neygar,” “blackamore,” “blackamoor,” “moor,” “barbaree,” “barbaryen,” “Ethiopian,” and “Indian.” The discussions of the records are organized in five chapters dealing with records of black people in early sixteenth-century Britain, in Elizabethan London, in seventeenth-century London, and elsewhere in England, with the last two chapters examining records of black people in the English provinces, and East Indians and other people of color in London and in the countryside.”

Source: Black Lives in the English Archives, 1500–1677 Imprints of the Invisible IMTIAZ HABIB

Odyssey 1.21-25: But now Poseidon had gone to visit the Ethiopians worlds away, Ethiopians off at the farthest limits of mankind, A PEOPLE SPLIT IN TWO , one part where the Sungod sets and part where the Sungod rises.  Source: Homer on the Ethiopians
Etymology: late 14c., from Latin Æthiops “Ethiopian, negro,” from Greek Aithiops, long supposed in popular etymology to be from aithein “to burn” + ōps “face” (compare aithops “fiery-looking,” later “sunburned”). late 14c., from Latin Æthiops “Ethiopian, negro,” from Greek Aithiops, long supposed in popular etymology to be from aithein “to burn” + ōps “face” (compare aithops “fiery-looking,” later “sunburned“).  Who the Homeric Æthiopians were is a matter of doubt. The poet elsewhere speaks of two divisions of them, one dwelling near the rising, the other near the setting of the sun, both having imbrowned visages from their proximity to that luminary, and both leading a blissful existence, because living amid a flood of light;  and, as a natural concomitant of a blissful existence, blameless, and pure, and free from every kind of moral defilement. [Charles Anthon, note to “The First Six Books of Homer’s Iliad,” 1878
Qouting Dr. Aisha Khan author of Islam and the Americas (New World Diasporas) :
“The Spanish conquistador Hernon Cortez arrived in Mexico in 1519 and referred to the Aztecs he encountered as Moors, and one priest in Cortez part said that the indigenous peoples of northern Mexico reminded him of al Arabes or Arabs, Spaniards called Aztec and Inca temples mosques and drew parallels between some Indian and Islamic rituals that involved animal sacrifice.”  

The color of the Indians of the California missions seen by La Peyrouse (Voyage, ii. 197, 212,) “Very nearly approaches that of the Negroes whose hair is not woolly; and in another place, the “colour of these Indians which is that of negroes.”  Langsdorf, who visited San Francisco on the coast of California, confirms the observations of La Peyrouse; for he says, (Voyage, 440,) The Indians there, “are of a very dark complexion, approaching to Black; they have large projecting lips, and broad flat, Negro like noses indeed many of their features, as well as their physiognomy, and almost their colour, bear a strong resemblance to the negroes: their hair, however, is long and strait.” 

“In another part of America, if reliance can be placed upon the correctness of the relation, a race of blacks were seen at so early a period of our history, that it seems impossible to avoid the conclusion that they were aboriginal. Peter Martyr, {2>d Decade, ^j«^e 97,) in describing the journey of Balboa across the Isthmus of Darien, A. D. 1511, gives the following history: “There is a region not above two days’ journey from Quarequa, in which they found only blackamoors; and those exceeding fierce and cruel. “^ The circumstance of finding them there, he attempted to explain, by the conjecture that they were Ethiopians, who had crossed the Atlantic to I’ob the country, and that after having been shipwrecked, they had been compelled by the natives to take refuge in the mountains. But all this is pure guesswork, which we shall not attempt to disprove, for it is not more plausible than the supposition that they were aboriginal.”

“If I am not much mistaken, however, we shall be able to shew, that the relation of Peter Martyr, concerning the blackamoors, as he calls them, seen by Balboa, was substan- tially correct: for we learn from Stevenson, [Travels in South America, ii. 387,) the following singular facts, which we shall quote at length. “The natives of Esmeral- das, Rio Verde, and Atacames,” (Republic of Columbia,) ”

Source: Researches, philosophical and antiquarian, concerning the aboriginal history of America


The words Moor*, blackamoor, in the same sense, are much older in E.] I. n. ; pi. negroes (-groz). A black man: specifically, one of a race of men characterized by a black skin and hair of a woolly or crisp nature. Negroes are distinguished from the other races by various other peculiarities — such as the projection of the visage in advance of the forehead ; the prolongation of the upper and lower jaws ; the small facial angle ; the flatness of the forehead and of the hinder part of the head ; the short, broad, and flat nose ; and the thick projecting lips. The negro race is generally regarded as comprehending the native inhabitants of Sudan, Senegambia, and the region southward to the vicinity of the equator and the great lakes, and their descendants in America and elsewhere ; in a wider sense it is used to comprise also many other tribes further south, as the Zulus and Kafirs. The word negro is often loosely applied to other dark or black-skinned races, and to mixed breeds.As designating a “race,” it is sometimes written with a capital. Toward the south of this region Is the kingdom of Guinea, with Senegal, Iaiofo, Gambra, and many other regions of the blacke Moores called Ethiopians or Negros, all which are watered with the river Negro, called in olde tyme Niger R. Eden. See First Three English Books on America [(ed. ArberX p. 374. H. a. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of black men or negroes: as, negro blood; negro dances. It is often asked what Races are Negro, as the meaning of the term is not well defined. . . .The word is not a National appellation, but denotes a physical type, of which the tribes In North Guinea are the representatives. When these characteristics are not all present, the Race is not Negro, though black and woolly-haired. R. N. Oust, Mod. Langs, of Africa, p. 53.

“These translations( More, vide Moro, a blacke Moore; Morisca, a women Moore that is become a Christian; Morisco, a blacke Moore made or become a Christian; Morado color, murrey or iron colour, dark colour; Morel, brown duskish colour; a Moore, v. Moro; a Blacke moore, vide Arabe, Negro; Negrillo, a little blacke Moore, somewhat blacke; Negrito, idem; Negro, blacke Also, a blackMooreofEthiopia; Prieto, or negro, blacke, browne) reveal a great deal of flexibility, in that both moro and negro are equated with “blackmoore” while “blackmoore” is equated with “Arab” as well as morisco and negro, and prieto and negro are equated with “browne” as well as black. In 1617 Minsheu equated Latin maurus with “Niger, black” and in another place stated: “Moore or Neger = a Moore, or one of Mauritanie, a black Moore, ore Neger…vid. a Neger and Black Moore and Ethiopian”.

Source: Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red …By Jack D. Forbes

“Maurus” was synonymous with “Moor,” “negro,” and “Aethiops”. See  John Etick’s A new English-Latin dictionary (1783). 

“In 1878, his attention as directed to its former presence at the Belvidere Museum by a notice in Baron von Sacken’s descriptive catalog of the Imperial Ambras collection printed in Vienna in 1855, wherein, among rare objects from various parts of the world, it is mentioned as follows: “No. 3—A Mexican head-dress about 3 ft. in height composed of magnificent green feathers studded with small plates of gold. This specimen was termed in the inventory of 1596 ‘a Moorish hat.” Guided by this note, Herr von Hochstetter with the assistance of Dr. Ilg, the custodian of the Ambras collection, found the precious relic and rescued it from an obscure corner of a show-case where it hung, folded together, next to a medieval bishop’s mitre and surrounded by sundry curiosities from North America, China and Sunda Islands. On folio 472 of the ancient document, it is cataloged with other objects in feather-work contained in a chest (No. 9) and is described as a Moorish hat of beautiful, long, lustrous green and gold-hued feathers, bedecked above with white, red and blue feathers and gold rosettes and ornaments. In front, on the forehead, it has a beak of pure gold. The term Moorish, as here applied can scarcely be regarded as a deceptive one inasmuch as “Montezuma, the king of Temistitan and Mexico,” is subsequently designated as “a Moorish king” in this same inventory of 1596. (See p.9) It is interesting to note the gradual changes that occur in the wording of the subsequent periodical official registrations of this “Moorish hat.” In 1613 its description was faithfully reproduced. In 1621 the word “Indian” was substituted for “Moorish:” with this single alteration, the original text was transcribed in 1730. In 1788, however, a remarkable transformation was effected, the hat became “an apron” and the official record reads An Indian apron of long green feathers. It is garnished above with a narrow band of white feathers, followed by a broad one of green, then there is a narrow stripe of red and broad one of blue. The bands are studded with crescents or horseshoes, small circular plates and other than gold pieces. The old inventory designates this object as an Indian hat.” The Inventory of 1596 affords the corrobative proof of a previously existing method of labelling the articles in the Archducal Musuem by the reference (after its brief entry) to ” a slip of paper attached to it,” for further details concerning the history of an Indian axe ” that had belonged to a Moorish king. This weapon belonged to Montezuma II, king of Temistitan and Mexico. It was sent by the Spanish Captain Ferdinand Cortes to the Pope whence it came as a present to Archdule Ferdinand.”

“Thus, also certain peoples of Nubia and Abyssinia were at times known as Indians such as the Blemmyes of Nonnus text, Dionysiaca. Meanwhile Abyssinia was referred to as “the third Indiawell into the medieval period (Pankhurst, 2003, p. 8; also seep. 87 of the “Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society”) and southern and northern Arabia called “India Minor”, and Kus or Kush or Ethiopia by Greeks, Syrians, and others.”
“In fact, the original eponyms Hind and Sind in Arabian lore were peoples of Kush from Kuth or Phut son of Ham, while for earlier writers such as Strabo the region of Abyssinia and everything east of the Nile in Africa is referred to as “Arabia”. These same Berbers or Berberia of Cusha-Dwipa were identified as Kushites in Arabic texts from Kush who is either said to be “son of Canaan”, or else son of Ham. But more of this subject of the Berber Kushites as Canaanites and the “Indians” as “Ethiopians”, and vice versa, will be discussed in future postings – as the Canaan spoken of in recent Western legend is not the early Canaan of early Berber or Afro-Asiatic tradition.”

“The strongest evidence of African presence in America before Columbus comes from the pen of Columbus himself. In 1920, a renowned American historian and linguist, Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book, Africa and the discovery of America, explained how Columbus noted in his journal that Native Americans had confirmed that “black skinned people had come from the south-east in boats, trading in gold-tipped spears.”

“One of the first documented instances of Africans sailing and settling in the Americas were black Egyptians led by King Ramses III, during the 19th dynasty in 1292 BC. In fact, in 445 BC, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote of the Ancient Egyptian pharaohs’ great seafaring and navigational skills. Further concrete evidence, noted by Dr. Imhotep and largely ignored by Euro-centric archaeologists, includes “Egyptian artifacts found across North America from the Algonquin writings on the East Coast to the artifacts and Egyptian place names in the Grand Canyon.”

“In 1311 AD, another major wave of African exploration to the New World was led by King Abubakari II, the ruler of the fourteenth century Mali Empire, which was larger than the Holy Roman Empire. The king sent out 200 ships of men, and 200 ships of trade material, crops, animals, cloth and crucially African knowledge of astronomy, religion and the arts.”

Source: Before Columbus: How Africans Brought Civilization to America

Source: Full text of “The journal of Christopher Columbus (during his first voyage, 1492-93) and documents relating to the voyages of John Cabot and Gaspar Corte Real [microform]”

“On 1he 3d of February 1845, he introduced his resolutions, and spoke in explanation of them; and, on the subject of the boundary, said: “The stupendous deserts between the Nueces and the Bravo rivers are the natural boundaries between the Anglo Saxon and the Mauritanian races. There ends of the valley of the west. There Mexico begins. Thence, beyond the Bravo, begins the Moorish people, and their Indian associates, to whom Mexico properly belongs; who should not cross that vast desert if they could, as we, on our side, too ought to stop there, because interminable conflicts must ensure our going south, or their coming north, of that gigantic boundary.

Source: Speech of Mr. Geo. Ashmun on the Mexican War By George Ashmun

“Armond de Quartrefages, an anthropologist at the Museum of National History in Paris, in his book The Human Species, wrote that black inhabitants were found in small numbers and isolated areas in America. Some examples were the Jamassi (Yamassee) of Florida, the Harruas of Brazil (Uruguay), the black Caribs of Saint Vincent on the Gulf of Mexico and the black Zuni of present Arizona and Mexico. In Columbus Journal of the Third Voyage, he said he wanted to find out about the black people the Indians told him about. Indians were found farming yams and taro, an African food, while the Portuguese explorers in Africa saw natives cultivating maize, an Indian product. The Pima Indian tribe, Arizona members of the Uto-Aztecan family of languages of the Southwestern area of the United States, now living in Southern Arizona, have been identified as speaking a Semitic language. Analysis of the language of the Pima Indians revealed that it may be derived from Phonecian Iberian Punic colonist who settled in America from the Basque area of Spain between 800 and 600 B.C. Inscriptions in the Zuni language of Mimbres pottery as well as certain mystic symbols have been discovered to bear a close resemblance to the North African group of languages used in the ancient kingdom of Libya.” Source: Are Moors Indigenous To South Carolina?
“They go completely naked except that around their loins they wear skins of small animals like martens, with a narrow belt of grass around the body, to which they tie various tails of other animals which hang down to the knees; the rest of the body is bare, and so is the head. Some of them wear garlands of birds’ feathers. They are dark in color, not unlike the Ethiopians, with thick black hair, not very long, tied back behind the head like a small tail. As for the physique of these men, they are well proportioned, of medium height, a little taller than we are. They have broad chests, strong arms, and the legs and other parts of the body are well composed. There is nothing else, except that they tend to be rather broad in the face: but not all, for we saw many with angular faces. They have big black eyes, and an attentive and open look. They are not very strong, but they have a sharp cunning, and are agile and swift runners. From what we could tell from observation, in the last two respects they resemble the Orientals, particularly those from the farthest Sinarian regions.”
“Compare English cot, cote, and cottage: also Gaelic cot, cota, a cottage; cota, a coat, a petitcoat. The radical meaning of this word would seem to be “something that covers or encloses.” In its Gaelic sense of a covering for the body, it is found among the “Moors” of North America, as, for example, in the matchecota or principal female garment [referred to by Longfellow in a note to “the principal garment” and the under garment.” (There are other so-called “Indian” words, which are still to be found in English dictionaries, and where the resemblance increases to absolute identity.”
  1. “We reached a very large island called Sumatra, where pepper grows in considerable quantities. . . . The Chief is a Moor but speaking a different language.”-<-> Santo Stefano, in India in the X Vth Cent.


  1. “Adì 28 zugno vene in Venetia insieme co Sier Alvixe de Boni un sclav moro el qual portorono i spagnoli da la insula spagniola.” —  in Museo Civicoat Venice. Here the term Moor is applied to a native of Hispaniola!Source: Moor Also Applied To Natives of Hispaniola [Haiti and Dominican Republic]

“The several Nations that now offers Brazile, besides its native inhabitants, are Portuguese, English, Hollanders, Germans, and French, which the Brazilians by a general Name call Ajuru-juba; otherwise they call all Strangers Caraiba or Pero. But the commixing of several Nations proceeds the fifth fort, for one that is born of European Parents in Brazile is called Mozombo; of an European Father and Brazilian Mother, Mameluc; of an European Father and a Moor, Mulatto; of a Brasilian and Moor, Curiboca, or Cabocles, of two Negro’s, Criolo.”



“This usage outlasted Shakespeare by at least two generations. In a brief narrative of the encounters between the early colonist of New England and the nativeIndians,” I find it stated that “…..these unfortunate gentlemen were intercepted by 700 Moors, with whom they fought for the space of four hours, till not only they two, but Capt. Sharp and fifty-one Christians more lay dead upon the place.” And again that “at Woodcock[s[, ten miles from Seconch, on the 16th May, was a little skrimage betwixt the Moors and Christians, wherein there was of the later three slain and two wounded, and only twoIndians kild.” (“News from New-England, 1676, reprinted at Boston and Albany, U.S., 1850 and 1865.)”


Source: Moors Have Always Asserted Their Rights As A Distinct Nationality

“Lempriere gives several nations bearing names beginning with Mor: the Morei or Morienses in India, and the Moruni in that country also, and the Morini, a people of Belgic Gaul, on the shores of the British Ocean, are examples. The Mauri* of Mauritania are perhaps the most notable examples of a nation bearing this name, though in a slightly altered shape. The consideration of this word, and of the localization of races thus named, is not irrelevant at this point. For although it may not be easy to trace their route hither, and the date of their arrival, a branch of this family did inhabit Britain, and are not only known as Mauri and Moors, but also as Moravienses, Morienses (identical with the name of those in India), Murray0men, and people of Moray or Moravia. This name Moravia was given to two districts in Scotland, one of the most important in the north-central, and the other in the southern portion of the country. That the Picts, known to the Romans as Mauri, were finally divided into two sections inhabiting these localities, is a speaking fact which it is well to remember at this juncture. The smaller district in the south has been the name-father of a family distinguished in Scottish history, the Murrays of Philiphaugh in Selkirkshire, whose ancestor, Archibald de Moravia, was among those who subscribed fealty to Edward I. of England, in 1296. One of the estates of this clan bore the significant name of the Black Barony. Of course, the race of Archibald de Moravia many have been that of an intruding army, and not necessarily that of the Moravienses, as he was simply Archibald [lord] of Moravia. “Sir Charles a Murre” who fought at Chevy Chase, of the same clan, shows the name in its modern form or approximately.”


Source: Ancient and Modern Britons: A Retrospect, Volume 1 By David MacRitchie Page 50 

“Though America possesses some dark brown men, approaching to black, yet it has been almost universally believed that there were no aboriginal blacks or negroes found on this continent. But from considering the peculiar circumstances under which a black race was found in North America, I hold it more than probable that the common opinion is erroneous. Torquemada says, the Californians shewed no manner of surprize at the sight of some negroes that accompanied Viscanio on a voyage to this coast, A. D. 1602. As I have never seen Torquemada’s Monarquia Indiana, I can only quote from Vcnega (California.) ii. 239,) who says from Torquemada, that when a negro was ordered to distribute some biscuit to the Californians at the bay of St. Barnabas, ‘The natives seemed greatly pleased at the sight of the negro, and signified to him, that they lived in friendship and correspondence with a people of his color, and that not far from thence was a negro village.”
“In another part of America a race of blacks were seen at so early a period of our history, that it seems impossible to avoid the conclusion that they were aboriginal.”
“The colour of the Indians of the Californian missions, seen by La Peyrouse, {Voyage, ii. 197, 212,)”very nearly approaches that of the negroes whose hair is not woolly; and in another place, the “colour of these Indians which is that of negroes.”
“Langsdorf, who visited St. Francisco on the coast of California, confirms the observations of La Peyrouse; for he says,[Voyage, 440,) the Indians there, “are of a very dark complexion, approaching to black; they have large projecting lips, and broad flat negro like noses; indeed many of their features, as well as their physiognomy, and almost their color, bear a strong resemblance to the negroes: their hair, however, is long and straight.”
“You promise, in your letter of October the 23rd, 1787, to give me in your next, at large, the conjectures of your philosopher on the descent of the Creek Indians from the Carthaginians, supposed to have been separated from Hanno’s fleet, during his periplus. I shall be very glad to receive them and see nothing impossible in his conjecture. I am glad he means to appeal to the similarity of language, which I consider as the strongest kind of proof it is possible to adduce. I have somewhere read, that the language of the ancient Carthaginians is still spoken by their descendants, inhabiting the mountains interior parts of Barbary, to which they were obliged to retire by the conquering Arabs. If so, a vocabulary of their tongue can still be got, and if your friend will get on of the Creek languages, the comparison will decide. He probably may have made on this side the Atlantic, I offer him my services cheerfully; may wish being, like his, ascertain the history of the American aborigines.”

Source: Memoir, Correspondence, and Miscellanies, from the Papers of …, Volume 2 By Thomas Jefferson

“1. Professor Barry Fell, retired lecturer from Harvard University and also a member of the American Academy of Science and Arts, the Royal Society, the Epigraphy Society and the Society of Scientific and Archeological Discoveries, is adamant about the arrival of Islam in America in the 650s,2 predicating this argument upon the Cufic calligraphy belonging to that era found in various diggings across America. If the words of Professor Fell have truth-value, then the Muslims had arrived in America during the era of Uthman, or at least that of Ali, the fourth caliph.” “Professor Fell again uses the results of various archeological diggings undertaken across many regions in the states of Colorado, New Mexico, and Indiana to assert the construction of Muslim schools during 700-800 CE. Writings, drawings, and charts inscribed on rocks discovered in the most remote and untainted terrains of Western America are relics bestowed by the elementary and intermediate systems of Muslim education at the time. These documents were written in the old Cufic letters of North African Arabic, covering subjects such as reading, writing, arithmetic, religion, history, geography, mathematics, astronomy, and navigation. The descendants of these settlers are thought to be the current native tribes of Iroquois, Algonquin, Anasazi, Hohokam, and Olmec.”

“2. The second evidence offered by Professor Fell is that the inscription of “In the Name of God” (picture 1), found on a rock during archeological work in Nevada, belongs to the seventh century, when the haraka sign system had not yet been developed. Likewise, the stone bearing the inscription “Muhammad is the Prophet of God” (picture 2) is pertinent to the same era. As seen by comparison of the two pictures, the inscriptions are not in the style of Modern Arabic; conversely they are in a Cufic style relevant to the seventh century.3”
“The Arabs, according to the findings of Professor Fell, settled in Nevada during the seventh and eighth centuries. The earlier existence of a school, which taught Islam and science, particularly navigation, has come to light following the archeological investigation undertaken by Professors Heizer and Baumhoff of California University around site WA 25 in Nevada.
The excavations in Nevada have uncovered writings in Naskhi Arabic and Cufic style that are inscribed on rocks which carry information about this school (picture 3). The application of the mathematical formula “five diamonds equal an alif” (alif is the first letter of Arabic alphabet) may be seen in this picture (pictures 3b and 3c). The Arabic letters in pictures 3b and 3c, found amid excavations in Nevada, are in exactly the same style as North African Arabic. Again similarly, another rock was found in Nevada bearing the name “God”, the style of which is yet again reminiscent of the prevalent technique of seventh and eighth-century North Africa. The calligraphical similarities between various writing styles of the Prophet’s name over diverse periods, particularly those relating to Africa and America, found during archeological investigations are striking indeed.
Figure A of picture 4 was found in al-Ain Lahag, Morocco and figure B in East Walker River; both are currently at the University of California. Figure C was discovered in Nevada and figures C and D were located in Churchill County and are also currently preserved at the University of California; likewise figure F was discovered in al-Haji Minoun, Morocco, while figure G, inscribed on ceramic, was revealed in al-Suk, Tripoli, Libya and figure H, at the University of California, was discovered at Cottonwood Canyon, while finally figure I was located on the border of Morocco and Libya. All these inscriptions belong to the eighth and ninth centuries, clearly illustrating the resemblance in style between North America and North Africa, as well as overtly suggesting a migration that occurred from Africa to America.”
“3. In the twelfth century the Athapcan Tribe, comprised of native Apaches and Navajos, raided the area inhabited by the Arabs, who either ended up fleeing or were exiled toward the South. These illiterate natives were spellbound by the schools founded by the Arabs, and, perhaps with the assistance of captives, attempted to imitate the same subjects, transforming the geometrical shapes into mythical beasts, which carried on for centuries.”
“4. Picture 5 is the Cufic writing found in 1951 in the White Mountains, close to the town of Benton on the border of Nevada. The words Shaytan maha mayan, i.e. the Devil is the source of all lies, have been written in a Cufic style peculiar to the seventh century.”
“5. Once more, a rock inscription belonging to post-650 CE, bearing the Cufic letters H-M-I-D of the word Hamid (picture 6), is another Arabic script discovered on the Atlata rocks in the Valley of Fire in Nevada.”
“6. While traveling from Malden to Cambridge in the state of Massachusetts in 1787 (on what is now RT. 16), the Reverend Thaddeus Mason Harris noticed some coins discovered by workers during road construction. The workers, not putting much value on these coins, presented him with a handful. Consequently, Harris decided to send these coins to the library of Harvard College for examination (picture 7). The study yielded that these were in fact Samarqand dirhams from the eighth and ninth centuries. As can be seen in the picture, the coins manifestly display the inscriptions La ilaha ill-Allah Muhammadun Rasulullah (There is no deity but God, and Muhammad is His Messenger) and Bismillah (in the name of God).”

“7. Picture 8 shows a piece of rock discovered in a cave in the region of Corinto in El Salvador, bearing the inscription Malaka Haji mi Malaya; this has been identified as belonging to the thirteenth century, suggesting a possible arrival of Muslims in South America, perhaps coming from somewhere near Indonesia.”

“8. During his second voyage, Columbus was told by the natives of Espanola (Haiti) of black men who had appeared on the island before him and they showed him the lances that had been left there by these Africans to support their assertions. The tips of the lances were of a metal, an alloy of gold, which they called guanin, a word which is semantically remarkably similar to the Arabic word ghina, meaning richness. Columbus had in fact brought some of this guanin back to Spain, recording that it was composed of 56.25% gold, 18.75% silver and 25% copper, ratios that were prevalent in African Guinea as standards for the processing of metals.”

“9. On his third voyage to the New World, Columbus visited Trinidad, where the sailors noticed the symmetrically patterned cotton and colorful handkerchiefs of the natives. Afterward, Columbus realized that the handkerchiefs, which the natives called almayzar, were all much the same in color, style, and use as the headscarves and waist bands used in Guinea. The word almayzar is Arabic, and denotes a cover, tie, apron, or skirt, and is a component of the regional costumes of the Moors, Arabs and, Berbers of North Africa, who had conquered Spain in the eighth century. Columbus observed that the local women wore cotton garments and wrote in astonishment that they had learned of the concept namus, i.e. chastity. In much the same vein, Hernan Cortes, another Spanish explorer, later recorded that the clothing of local women consisted of long veils and skirts decorated with ornaments that were similar to those of the Moors. Ferdinand, Columbus’ son, was also quick to notice the resemblance between the cotton dresses of the natives and the ornamented shawls fashioned by Moorish women in Granada. The cradles used by the natives, furthermore, very closely resembled those of North Africa.”

“10. Columbus recorded on 21 October 1492 that he had noticed a mosque on top of a mountain while sailing around Cibara on the northeast coast of Cuba. Relics of mosques carrying Qur’anic inscriptions on their minarets have been found in Cuba, Mexico, Texas, and Nevada since these times.”

“11. Leo Weiner, a well-known Harvard historian and linguist, stated in his book The Discovery of Africa and America, written in 1920, that Columbus was aware of the existence of Mandinka, an ethnic group of West Africa, in the New World. The same book also affirms that Columbus was aware that West African Muslims were living across North America, including the south, middle regions and Canada, as well as in the Caribbean, and that they had marital and commercial ties with the native tribes of Iroque and Algonquin.”

“12. A preponderance of the voyages embarked upon by Columbus and other Spanish and Portuguese explorers toward the other side of the Atlantic were undertaken only in the light of the geographical and navigational knowledge prepared by Muslims. Al-Masudi’s (871-957 CE) work Muruj’uz-Zahab, for instance, was written with this sort of data compiled by Muslim traders from across Africa and Asia. Two of Columbus’ captains on the first voyage, in actual fact, were Muslims: Martin Alonso Pinzon was in charge of the Pinta, while his brother Vicente Yanez Pinzon was the designated captain of Nina; both were from the Moroccan Marinid dynasty, descendants of Sultan Abu Zayan Muhammad III (r. 1362-1366). Formerly well-to-do ship riggers, they assisted Columbus in organizing his voyage of exploration, preparing the Santa Maria, the flagship, and covering all its expenses.”

“13. Christopher Columbus has recorded the custom of nose piercing, which used to be and still popular in the Middle Eastern and Arab countries, as being prevalent in some islands across the Atlantic also mentions the writing of letters in Arabic.”

“14. In the account of sixteenth century missionaries in America, the local copper mines, found particularly in Virginia, Tennessee, and Wisconsin were not operated by the natives, but instead by people from the Middle East, towards whom the natives nurtured a profound sympathy.”

“15. A sum of 565 names, 484 in America and 81 in Canada, of villages, towns, cities, mountains, lakes, rivers and etcetera, are etymologically Arabic, designated by locals long before the arrival of Columbus. Many of these names are in fact the same as names of Islamic places; Mecca in Indiana, Medina in Idaho, Medina in New York, Medina and Hazen in North Dakota, Medina in Ohio, Medina in Tennessee, Medina in Texas, Medina and Arva in Ontario, Mahomet in Illinois and Mona in Utah, are just a few noticeable names at the outset. A closer analysis of the names of native tribes will immediately reveal their Arabic etymological ancestry; Anasazi, Apache, Arawak, Arikana, Chavin, Cherokee, Cree, Hohokam, Hupa, Hopi, Makkah, Mohician, Mohawk, Nazca, Zulu, and Zuni are only a few.”

House and building Structures
“Archeological excavations conducted throughout North America and North Africa reveal a corresponding architectural resemblance between ninth century buildings. The structure of a Berber house of the Atlas Mountains, Morocco (picture 9), for instance, is exactly the same as that of a house in New Mexico (picture 10).
The same similarity can be traced between the Castle of Montezuma discovered in Arizona and the remnants found in Mesa Verde in Colorado and the general structure of Berber buildings (picture 11-12).”
“The research undertaken by Professor Cyrus Thomas of the Smithsonian Institute shows that a small cabin built from piles of rock found in Ellenville, New York is virtually the same as the cabin, again of rock, found around Aqabah, Southern Arabia, both of which are thought to have been built around the start of the eighth century (picture 13).”

“Arabic words prevalent among natives prior to the arrival of Europeans The pervasiveness of many Islamic words across the continent prior to European influx is verified by the following terms discovered in the regions currently known as New England and Nova Scotia, in America and Canada respectively. Fell pointed to some words as example of Arabic influence on Native Americans. All of the words listed below are derived from the Arabic language. However, time had eroded their original meanings, and most are not used in Arabic today.”

“The last Muslim stronghold in Spain, Granada, fell just before the Spanish Inquisition was established in 1492. Non-Christians were forced to either convert to Catholicism to save themselves from the tyranny of the Inquisition or were exiled from the country. Documents exist which prove the existence of immigrant Muslims in Spanish America before 1550. In 1539 an edict from Spanish King Charles V was put into practice which forbade the immigration of Muslims to settlements in the West. This edict was later expanded to expel all Muslims from overseas Spanish colonies in 1543. The existence of Muslims in overseas islands and regions was known along with the fact that the Spanish king issued such an edict. Again, in many Islamic sources, it is noted that Muslims living in Spain and North Africa made overseas voyages during the Andalusia period. Scientific research on this subject will bring out many documents into the daylight, documents which have escaped the notice of both Muslims in America and those throughout the world, which will perhaps serve, in the future if not immediately, as a starting point for a re-evaluation of the history of America.”

1. Trento, Salvatore Michael. The Search for Lost America, p.15 Penguin Books, New York: 1978.
2. Fell, Dr. Barry. Saga America, p. 190, Time Books, New York: 1980.
3. ibid. p. xiv.
4. ibid. pp. 332-333.
5. ibid. pp. 333-334.
6 ibid. p. 182.
7. ibid. p. 243.
8. ibid. p. 26.
9. ibid. p. 276.
7. Teacher, John Boyd. Christopher Columbus, p. 380, New York: 1950.
8. Columbus, Ferdinand. The Life of Admiral Christopher Columbus, p. 232 Rutgers Uni. Press, 1959.
6. Obregon, Mauricio. The Columbus Papers, The Barcelona Letter of 1493.
10. The Landfall Controversy, and the Indian Guides, McMillan Co., New York: 1991.
11. Weiner, Dr. Leo. Africa and the Discovery of America, Vol.2 p. 365-366 Philadelphia: 1920.
12. Obregon, 1493.
13. Trento, 1978, p. 23.
14. ibid. p. 29.
15. ibid. p. 65.
16. Fell, 1980. 250-252.
17. Trento, 1978, p. 15.
18. Fell, 1980. p. 400-403.

The Works of Sallust

“From the plains of Catabathmos, (which are the Boundaries separating Egypt from Africa) following the Sea-coast, the first City is that of Cyene, a Greek Colony from Thera. Next, are the Two Syrtes: Between them lands Leptis; and them Altars, raised to the Two Brothers Phileni, which limited the Dominions of Carthage toward Egypt: Afterwards are found other Punic Cities.”

“All the other Territories, quite to Mauretania, are occupied by the Numidians. The Moors are situated nearest to Spain. Above Numidia, as I have learned, live the Getulians; some in Huts, others wild and roaming. Beyond these are the Ethiopians; and, further on, Regions utterly scorched by the Rays of the Sun.”

“Now, during this War, the Roman People had Governors of their own, in most of the Punic Cities, and in the Territories lately belonging to Carthage. Great Part of the Getulians was subject to the Jugurtha; so were the Numidians, as far as the River Mulucha. The Moors were all under the Sovereignty of Bocchus, who knew nothing of the Romans, farther than their Name; neither was He before known to them, by any intercourse of War or Peace.”

“The Moorish King, after long…and Balancing within himself, at last, declared his Affiant to this proposition. Whether his hesitation proceeded from Perisdy, or from Perplexity, is not clear. In truth, the Inclinations of Princes, as they are generally impetuous, are also unsteady, and subject to thwart one another. Now, as a Time and Place were settled for a Treaty, Bocchus, in the Interval, frequently called, now for Sylla, anon for the Minister of Jugurtha, caressed each and made the same promises to both. Thus they were equally pleased and filled with equal Hopes.”

“But the Night preceding the Day appointed for the Treaty, the Moorish King, after he had called together his Counsellors, and then, his Mind suddenly changing, sent them all away again, is reported to have had many and strong conflicts within himself, insomuch that the frequent Changes of his visage, and external agitations, corresponding with the distractions of his spirit, manifested his Agonics, though he said nothing. At last, he sent for Sylla, and, comfortably to his counsel, prepared to deceive and seize the Numidian Prince.”

Source: The Works of Sallust By Sallust

“Moor” originally meant “Westerner” not “Black”, “Negro” or “Colored”

There is “no reason” to believe that the people who called themselves “Mauri” assumed their native name from foreigners (“Europeans, Romans nor Greeks“) as many “Black American” or “African American” laymen have proposed, and whom I find to largely rely on the common reference to the “Greek” and “Roman” languages.  “After all, North Africa, then called Mauretania, and Spain both had been provinces of the Roman Empire, and, as such they had traded with one another for centuries.” Source: (p. 38) The Knights Templar of the Middle East The Hidden History of the Islamic Origins of Freemasonry by HRF Prince Michael of Albany and Walid Amine Salhab.

   Ancient Mauritania Spans from North       Africa to the Coast of Guinea in Nigeria


Moor: [Maurus, Latin.] A negro; a black-a-moor.I shall answer that better than you can the getting up of the negro’s belly; the moor is with child by you. Shakespeare.” As late as 1398 we find the following reference to the ‘Moors’: Also the nacyn (nation) of Maurys (Moors) theyr blacke colour comyth of the inner partes.”

Source: A dictionary of the English language: in which the words are deduced from : their originals, explained in their different meanings and authorized by the names of the writers in whose works they are found by Johnson, Samuel, 1709-1784. 

Portrait of antiquary and author John Cussans circa 1861 (Source: UK National Portrait Gallery)

In his 1893 Handbook of Heraldry, British antiquarian John Edwin Cussans (1837-1899) wrote:

Royal Moorish bloodlines of Italy

The Heads of a Moor, or Blackamoor, and a Saracen, are wreathed about the temples with a fillet of twisted silk, the Tincture or Tinctures of which must be mentioned. ”

Source: Handbook of Heraldry: With Instructions for Tracing Pedigrees and Deciphering Ancient Mss., Rules for the Appointment of Liveries, &c Front Cover John Edwin Cussans Chatto & Windus, 1893 – Heraldry – 353 pages

Map By Girolamo Ruscelli Mauritania Nuova Tavola [North Africa and West Africa] Girolamo Ruscelli Place/Date: Venice / 1562
Mohr Name Meaning

“North German: topographic name for someone who lived in a fen, Middle Low German mor. German and Dutch: nickname for a man of swarthy complexion, from Middle High German mor, Middle Dutch mo(e)r ‘Moor’. German: from a short form of an old personal name, Morhart (see Morath).”

Source: Dictionary of American Family Names ©2013, Oxford University Press

Muhr Name Meaning

“German (Bavaria): topographic name from Middle High German muor ‘marsh’, ‘bog’, or ‘moor’. North German and Swiss: variant of Mauer 2.”

Source: Dictionary of American Family Names ©2013, Oxford University Press

Moors Name Meaning

“English: variant spelling of Moores. Dutch: nickname for a man of swarthy complexion or ethnic name for a North African, from moor ‘Moor’ (see Moore 2). Dutch: patronymic from a short form of the Latin personal name Mauritius (see Morris 1).”

Source: Dictionary of American Family Names ©2013, Oxford University Press

“Meanwhile, there has been ongoing debate about Mohrenstrasse U-Bahn station: “Mohr” translates literally as “moor”

Source: Germany’s other brutal history: should Berlin’s ‘African Quarter’ be renamed?

“During Germany’s colonial expansion, the street served as a place for parades by African delegates, such as representatives from the Brandenburg colony Grossfriedrichsburg, now a part of Ghana. To this day, the street is called Mohrenstrabe and is even the name for one subway station, Ulrich van der Heyden, “Die Mohrenstrasse,” in Kolonialmetropole Berlin: Eine Spurensuche ed.”

Source: Color, Hair, and Bone: Race in the Twenty-first Century edited by Linden Lewis, Glyne A. Griffith, Elizabeth Crespo Kebler

“The word ‘Moor’ is a loose term that was used in Medieval and Renaissance England to refer to the ‘Moors’, ‘blackmoors’, ‘Negroes’, ‘Indians’, ‘Mahometans’ or ‘Muslims’. All these terms were more often than not used interchangeably. This study is concerned with the Moor from North Africa.” “The words “Moor,” “blackman”, “blackmoor,” “Negroe,” “Aethiopian,” (or even “Turk,” and “Arab”) were used interchangeably in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in spite of the fact that the English became aware of the distinctions between different types of blacks.” (P.3) “The word ‘Moor’ was commonly used to refer to Muslims in general whether they came from Africa or Asia. Thus, the inhabitants of the island of Molucca (part of today’s Malaysia) are referred to as “Moors in religion”.6 In fact, as Anthony Gerald Barthelemy puts it, “almost anyone who was not Christian, European, or Jewish could have been called a Moor; this includes Asians, Native Americans, Africans, Arabs, and all Muslims regardless of ethnicity.” (P.7)

Source: THE IMAGE OF MOORS IN THE WRITINGS OF FOUR ELIZABETHAN DRAMATISTS: PEELE, DEKKER, HEYWOOD AND SHAKESPEARE A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Submitted by Mohamed Ibrahim Hassan Elaskary To the University of Exeter April 2008

“The U.S. Immigration Dictionary of Races and Peoples was originally intended to guide the Immigration Commission workers, but when it became clear that it would appear too late for that, it came to be seen as the Commission’s summation of knowledge about each race or people.

Moor: A historical rather than an ethnographical term applied to very different peoples of northwestern Africa. In Roman history it is applied to inhabitants of Mauretania (Morocco and Algeria), who were in part Phoenician colonist. In Spanish history the “Moors” and “Moriscos” were mainly supposed to be Arabs. Today the word is wrongly applied to the Riffs of Morocco and to the town dwellers of Algeria and Tunis. The latter call themselves generally “Arabs,” although often in part of Berber blood. The Moors, in a stricter ethnological sense, are the mixed Trarza and other tribes on the western coast, from Morocco to Senegal, mainly of nomadic habits. They are of mixed Berber, Arab, and often Negro blood. Many speak Arabic. (See Semetic-Hamitic.)”

Source: Dictionary of races or peoples by United States. Immigration Commission (1907-1910); Dillingham, William P. (William Paul), 1843-1923; Folkmar, Daniel, 1861-1932; Folkmar, Elnora (Cuddeback) 1863-1930

“So predominant was the black skin of the Moorish invaders of Europe that blackamoor (black as a Moor) came to be used not only for Moroccans but for other blacks as Ethiopians and Sudanese. As Elliot Smith say, “Negro admixture is so evident among the Moroccan population that the word Moor is often used to suggest Negro influence, as we see it ‘blackamoor,'” (Human History, p. 124. 1919). The Oxford Dictionary also says it was commonly used for Negro in the Middle Ages and as late as the 17th century. Hambly, a more recent writer says, “In physique a Moor may be a Berber or an Arab, or a mixture of the two with Negro blood as well.” (Source Book of Anthropology, Vol. I, p. 135, 935. 1937). But since many Arabs and Berbers are already Negro.”.. Moors are, on the whole, darker than the average American mulatto.”

Source: Nature Knows No Color-Line: Research into the Negro Ancestry in the White Race By J. A. Rogers

“Ancient Mauritania is wider in terms of geographic dimension than it is today. It stretched from North Africa to West and Central Africa.”

Strabo corroborates the fact thatMaures (Mauri, Moors)named themselves by statingMauri” was a name used by the natives of Mauritania as well as the Romans.” Mauri” was a name used by the natives of Mauritania, not just the “Romans” or “Greeks” .

Source: Strabo Geographies xvii 3.2

Moor. Forms Maur, More, Moure, Mowre, Maure, Moore, Moor. Moor. (Now with initial capital.) [ME. More, a. F.More (13th c), Maure, ad. L. Mounts (med. L. Morus), Gr. Mavpos. Cf. Sp., Pg., It. Moro; MDu. Moor, Moer (Du. Moor), OHG. M0r, pi. M6H (MHG. MSr, Mar, mod.G. Mohr), The L. Maurus, Gr.  Mavpos may possobly be from some North African language. Some believe the word to be merely a use of Gr. Maupos black (which on this view is… but the adj. (or at least this sense of it) is confined to late Gr., and may even be derived from the ethnic name). 1. In Ancient History , a native of Mauretania a region of North Africa corresponding to parts of Morocco and Algeria. In later times, one belonging to the people of mixed Berber and Arab race, Mohammedan in religion, who constitute the bulk of the population of North-western Africa, and who in the 8th c. conquered Spain. In the Middle Ages, and as late as the 17th c., the Moors were commonly supposed to be mostly black or very swarthy (though) the existence of ‘white Moors’ was recognized), and hence the word was often used for ‘negro’; cf. BLACKAMOOR.

Source: A New English dictionary on historical principles: founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological society / edited by James A. H. Murray … with the assistance of many scholars and men of science.

Cabeza negroide, época fenicia " ( Head negroid, Phoenician)
Male head with Negroid features : ( CE12093 ) Hometown : The seabed in the vicinity of the tip of the Nao (La Caleta ) Size : 22.5 x 16.5 cm
(8.9 inches x 6.5 inches) Dating: sixth century B.C. Museum of Cádiz Cultural Context / Iron Old Style . Phoenician- Punic Hometown Playa de La Caleta , Cádiz ( m ) ( Cadiz Northwest Coast (district) , Cádiz ( province): Negroid Underwater Archaeological Survey , Rodicio Mera, Antonio Specific / Site Location Playa La Caleta

“The Mauri, another north-west African people whose color received frequent notice, were at times described as as “nigri”  (black) and “adusti” (scorched).”

Source: Golden Age Of The Moor by Ivan Van Sertima

Source: Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks By Frank M. Snowden

“Nigri is derived from the Italian word “negri” which means “black.” The recorded spellings of Nigri include Negri, Negro, Nigri, Nigris, Nigra, Negris, Negrelli, Negrotto, Negrello, Negroni and many more.”

Source: Nigri History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

 “Isidore, a Catholic scholar and the Archbishop of Seville (587-636) wrote that the word ‘maurus’ meant ‘black’. “The Mauri possess bodies black as night, while the skins of the Gauls are white

Source: Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, 6th c. AD.

For example, in a Middle English romance called Kyng Alisa under ( ca. 1175), the conqueror Darius has, among his troops, a contingent of soldiers led by Duke Mauryn. Regarding Mauryn, J.B. Friedman writes that, “… it sounds rather like “Moor” in this context.” 

In old European children songs like the Dutch song Moriaantje about a litte Moor as black as soot.

Source: Blacks in the Dutch World: The Evolution of Racial Imagery in a Modern Society By Allison Blakely

The Roman dramatist Platus (254-184 B.C.) maintained that the Latin word “Maurus” was a synonym for “Niger”.

In contrasting the Moors of the sixth century with another racial group in North Africa, Procopius (circa 550 A.D.) wrote that: “they were not black skinned like the Moors.”

“The earliest European account of the Moorish invasion of Spain, the Chronicle of 754, refers to the Visigothic capitulation, the so-called “loss of Spain” (perdida de España) at the hands of the “Arabs and Moors sent by Musa,” or Musa Ibn Nusayr, the Muslim governor of North Africa.

In the Estoria de Espanna (History of Spain), the first vernacular chronicle composed in Spain, we find a characteristic portrayal:

All the Moorish soldiers were dressed with silk and black wool that had been forcibly acquired … their black faces were like pitch and the most handsome of them was as black as a cooking pan.”

The extensive European historiography on the Crusades is replete with similar portrayals. French, Italian, and English histories of the medieval Moors—and later the Turks—repeat these stereotypes and reinforce this negative image.”

Source: AMERICAN STORIES, CONNECTED HISTORIES ‘Moors’ from Oxford Islamic Studies Online

“This view of the origin of Maurus must, however, be disregarded here, and out attention turned more directly to the dwellers among the moors and marshes. Whether they gave their name to these places or were so styled because they inhabited them, they were at any rate known as Moors. That is to say, this became the general pronunciation given to the word. The original root seems likelier to have been “mor”, as seen in Cornish, Amorican, and other languages. Jamieson, in his Scottish Dictionary, says of the word “moriave,”, defined by him as “black, swarthy, resembling a Moor,”–” This word has certainly been used in Old English, as Cotgrave gives it as the sense of Fr. more, id. It is probably a contraction of Lat. Mauritanus, a moor.” (It would, perhaps, be more correct to say that Lat. Mauritannus and Maurus are extensions of Mor.)

“He also connects this word with the morion that formed the head-piece of the medieval man at arms. After English word from this root is murrey, mean ing dark red, or copper-color. The country of Moravia is said to receive its name from its chief river the Morava, March, or anciently Marus, and its first known inhabitants are stated to have been a people named Quadi, who emigrated in the fifth century to Gaul and Hispania. “The river Morava” is a tautology; for morava is Mor River, whether ava be regarded as Celtic, or Gothic, or a language older than either. It is not unreasonable to conjecture that the “Quadi” who went into France and Spain may have borne this name “Mor,” the other having been given to them by outsiders, or vice versa. They seem to have been known to the Romans, against whom they fought, by the first of these names.”

“Lempriere gives several nations bearing names beginning with Mor: the Morei or Morienses in India, and the Moruni in that country also, and the Morini, a people of Belgic Gaul, on the shores of the British Ocean, are examples. The Mauri* of Mauritania are perhaps the most notable examples of a nation bearing this name, though in a slightly altered shape. The consideration of this word, and of the localization of races thus named, is not irrelevant at this point. For although it may not be easy to trace their route hither, and the date of their arrival, a branch of this family did inhabit Britain, and are not only known as Mauri and Moors, but also as Moravienses, Morienses (identical with the name of those in India), Murray0men, and people of Moray or Moravia. This name Moravia was given to two districts in Scotland, one of the most important in the north-central, and the other in the southern portion of the country. That the Picts, known to the Romans as Mauri, were finally divided into two sections inhabiting these localities, is a speaking fact which it is well to remember at this juncture. The smaller district in the south has been the name-father of a family distinguished in Scottish history, the Murrays of Philiphaugh in Selkirkshire, whose ancestor, Archibald de Moravia, was among those who subscribed fealty to Edward I. of England, in 1296. One of the estates of this clan bore the significant name of the Black Barony. Of course, the race of Archibald de Moravia many have been that of an intruding army, and not necessarily that of the Moravienses, as he was simply Archibald [lord] of Moravia. “Sir Charles a Murre” who fought at Chevy Chase, of the same clan, shows the name in its modern form or approximately.”

Source: Ancient and Modern Britons: A Retrospect, Volume 1 By David MacRitchie Page 50


It appears that writers have replaced the ancient “Westerner” meaning of the term “Moor” with the “Black” or “Browncomplexion or skin color description of the people in their efforts to implement “White Skin Supremacy” into literature which requires enforcement of the crusader duty to “Blacken” “White-out” or “strip” dark skin people of their Moorish heritage. I have  theory that the purpose is to employ illusions of association among descendants of “enslaved Moors” now identifying under the badges of Slavery branded upon “enslaved Moors” starting around 1441 A.D. such as Negro and Black, when these two terms are found within legislation enacted to govern slaves, slave records and revisionist history books written in effort to create “Political Black Pride” in those learning about the history, heritage and culture of the Moors, who claim it as Black History, it was Black authors who accepted the badges of slavery as a suitable social or political i.e. racial Identity following behind “White Supremacist authors” whose very agenda is the same.

   Mauritania Nuova Tavola Southwest

These same authors chose to ignore the use of the “Black” as a  Caste/Perpetual Brand/Badge of Slavery” as only being employed in Slave Records and accepted it as an identifier for various indigenous and ancient nations, kingdoms and tribes. Much reliance is based on historical references identifying the skin complexion or color of several ancient groups including the Moors. However, the truth can be colored over but it cannot be removed.

Striking dark impression of Ruscelli’s map of the Northwest portion of Africa. Ruscelli’s Atlas is an expanded edition of Gastaldi’s Atlas of 1548, which has been called the most comprehensive atlas produced between Martin Waldseemüller’s Geographiae of 1513, and the Abraham Ortelius Theatrum of 1570. Ruscelli and Gastaldi’s maps were beautifully engraved on copper, marking a turning point in the history of cartography.

“The history of the Greek alphabet starts with the adoption of Phoenician letter forms and continues to the present day. The Greek alphabet postdates Linear B, the syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, by several centuries. This article concentrates on the early period, before the codification of the now-standard Greek alphabet.”

“The Phoenician alphabet was strictly speaking one that was consistently explicit only about consonants, though even by the 9th century BC it had developed matres lectionis to indicate some, mostly final, vowels.[1] This arrangement is much less suitable for Greek than for Semitic languages, and these matres lectionis, as well as several Phoenician letters which represented consonants not present in Greek, were adapted according to the acrophonic principle to represent Greek vowels consistently, if not unambiguously.”

“The Greek alphabet was developed by a Greek with first-hand experience of contemporary Phoenician script. Almost as quickly as it was established in the Greek mainland, it was rapidly re-exported, eastwards to Phrygia, where a similar script was devised. It was also exported westwards with Euboean or West Greek traders, where the Etruscans adapted the Greek alphabet to their own language, which eventually led to the Latin alphabet.”

Source: History of the Greek alphabet

בנטם-מגדו מלון עברי ואנגלי חדש By Reuven Sivan, Edward A. Levenston
בנטם-מגדו מלון עברי ואנגלי חדש
By Reuven Sivan, Edward A. Levenston

German: variant of Maurer. German and Jewish (Ashkenazic): topographic name for someone who lived by a wall, Middle High German mure, German Mauer. As a Jewish name it can be ornamental.

Source: Dictionary of American Family Names ©2013, Oxford University Press

“The etymology of the word “Moor” can be traced to the Phoenician term “Mahurin” meaning “Westerners”. The Semitic etymon “Mahourím,” referred to “People of the West,” and the terms “Maghreb” meant “The West” or “the place where the sun sets;” and “Greater Maghreb” referred to “Further West;” while “Moghrab el Aksa,” meant “the extreme west.” According to Laurence Waddell Early Phoenician titles such as: “Muru,” “Mer,” or “Marutu,” can be translated as meaning “Of the Western Sea (or Sea of the Setting Sun).” The “Akkadian Amurru” occur as a geographical term meaning literally “the West.” In Sumerian the “Amorites” were known as the “Martu” or the Tidnum, in Akkadian by the name of “Amurru”, and in Egypt as “Amar”, all of which mean ‘westerners‘ or ‘those of the west‘. It must be noted the “Hebrew” terms Maarab,” “Mareb,” “Marrabah” and “Mah-ar-awb” also mean “West“. The Hebrew “Mahur” also means “Westerner.” Odyssey 1.21-25:But now Poseidon had gone to visit the Ethiopians worlds away, Ethiopians off at the farthest limits of mankind, A PEOPLE SPLIT IN TWO , one part where the Sungod sets and part where the Sungod rises.”  Source: Homer on the Ethiopians I inquired with Dana Reynolds Marniche as to her thoughts on this and she  confirmed thatMa’rib” does not mean “Maarab. However, “Ma”rib” was definitely a “jurisdiction” within “Arabia Felix” 

In Hebrew the word ערב ʿarav thus has the same triconsonantal root as the root meaning “west” (מערב maʿarav) “setting sun” or “evening” (מעריב maʿariv, ערב ʿerev). The direct Arabic cognate of this is غرب ġarb (“west”, etc.) rather than عرب ʿarab ; however, in Ugaritic and Sayhadic,[2] languages which normally preserve proto-Semitic ghayin, this root is found with ʿayin adding to the confusion. The first recorded use of the word is in Hebrew, Genesis 1:5, and its meaning there is “evening.”  Source: Semitic etymology

See: An “Arap (Arab)” According to Vladimir Dal’s 1863 Dictionary, meant a “Black-skinned Person”

It is in the case of the Assyrian forms that a possible derivation from “ArabDIN|ʿgh-r-b” (“west”) is most plausible, referring to people or land lying west of Assyria in a similar vein to the later Greek use of the term Saracen meaning in Arabic “Easterners”, “ArabDIN|šarqiyyūn” for people living in the east. The root of the word has many meanings in Semitic languages including “west/sunset,” “desert,” “mingle,” “merchant,” “raven” and are “comprehensible” with all of these having varying degrees of relevance to the emergence of the name. It is also possible that some forms were metathetical from transl|sem|ʿ-B-R “moving around” (Arabic ArabDIN|ʿ-B-R “traverse”), and hence, it is alleged, “nomadic.” The plurality of meanings results partly from the assimilation of the proto-Semitic “ghayin” with transl|sem|”ʿayin” in some languages. In Hebrew the word “transl|sem|ʿarav” thus has the same triconsonantal root as the root meaning “west” (“transl|sem|maʿarav”) “setting sun” or “evening” (“transl|sem|maʿariv”, “transl|sem|ʿerev”). The direct Arabic cognate of this is “ArabDIN|ġarb” (“west”, etc.) rather than “ArabDIN|ʿarab”; however, in Ugaritic, a language which normally preserves proto-Semitic “ghayin”, this root is found with Unicode|”ʿayin” adding to the confusion. [If we assume that the word for “evening” was originally pronounced with Unicode|”ʿayin”, or that the distinction between Unicode|”ʿayin” and “ghayin” was not phonemic, it could be connected with the “mixture” meaning, as evening is when day mixes with night.] Source: Arab (etymology)

The Maghrib prayer (Arabic: صلاة المغرب‎ ṣalāt al-maġrib, ‘”sunset prayer”), prayed just after sunset, is the first of five obligatory daily prayers (salat) performed by practicing Muslims. Counted from sunset, the traditional begin of the Islamic day, it is the first prayer. Counted from midnight it is the fourth prayer. Source:Maghrib prayerMaghreb is Arabic for “sunset.” In some definitions, the wider region of this name includes Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Mauritania. A narrower definition (the one current in France, for example) only encompasses Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. The narrowest definition is Maghreb al-Aqsa, “the Furthest Sunset,” i.e. Morocco.” Source: How did Africa get its name?



The first source I present that “Moor” means “Westerner” is Philip Khuri Hitti (فيليب خوري حتي in Arabic), (Shimlan 1886 – Princeton 1978) was a Lebanese American scholar and authority on Arab and Middle Eastern history, Islam, and Semitic languages. He almost single-handedly created the discipline of Arabic Studies in the United States. In his work History of the Arabs first published in 1937, contended that the term “Moor” has a geographic designation meaning Western.


Phillip Khuri Hitti spent 10 years writing this book he provided that: “The Romans called Western Africa “Mauretania” and its inhabitants Mauri (presumably of Phoenician origin meaning ‘Western’) whence [the] Spanish Moor [and the] English Moor. The Berbers, therefore, were the Moors proper, but the term was conventionally applied to all Moslems of Spain and North-western Africa.”


The origins of the term is not elusive like most claim and do not go back to “death” as the term precedes existence of the Roman deity “Mors.”‘ Many of these frivolous notions that people have come up with today on YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, etc. The arrogance within the ignorance is remarkable, among some of these bogus scholars and educators, you even have people on the Hidden Colors video purporting to be educators telling people that “Moors” means “Black“, this is because they do not deal with technicalities, the fact that English dictionaries from the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th and early 19th century use “Black” and “Negro” and sometimes Black man merely demonstrates who it applied to versus specifically meaning that Moor means Black or Negro, what it shows is that the writers of the English Dictionaries were on board with the Stripping of Name and Heritage Scheme (Capitis dimunitio), they branded Moors as Negroes and Blacks, thus it was significant to define Moor as Negro and Black in their dictionaries so the English descendants would not forget who the term “Moor” applies too i.e. the People now identified as “Negros“, “Blacks” and “African Americans.


The following source provides that its derivation from the Semitic etymon Mahourím, “People of the West,” those who say that source is questionable are usually unaware as to the Phoenician/Canaanite origin to the term Roman “Maure”, and the Greek “Mavros” which gave birth to the Romance languages (German, English, French, Spanish, etc), the Arabic al-Mar is extremely rare and is alleged to not occur in Andalusi Arabic sources which I think is irrelevant because the Moors (Maures) were a Nation composed of many tribes before the Andalusian Era in general.  Mauroi is late Greek and may have been derived from the Latin ethnic name Mauri. Following the destruction of Carthage in 146 B.C.E., the term mauri was used to indicate the tribes inhabiting the Roman provinces established in Ancient Mauretania, corresponding to modern-day western Algeria and northeastern Morocco.


The following article explained the term “Moor” as background to Menocal’s Ornament of the World and Maalouf’s Leo Africanus.

“In the Latin Middle Ages, Mauri referred to a mixture of Berbers and Arabs inhabiting the coastal regions of Northwest Africa. In Spain, Portugal, and Italy, Mauri became Moros (Maures in French). More commonly, however, it was a racial designation for dark-skinned or black skin peoples, as in its English usage, which is seen as early as the fourteenth century.” 

Source: Article by David Assouline reprinted from The Oxford Encyclopedia …


Another source demonstrating the relationship between “Moor” and “Westerner” is the fact that the “West” in “Arabic” is pronounced “Maghrib” which should also ring a bell.

“The Normans re-took Sicily in 1061, establishes trading relationships with northern Africa, and employed Africans in their armies. Fredrick II, for example, no only used such warriors but placed them in his bodyguard. These African guards, together with African musicians and animal keepers, as well as the Emperor’s African personal attendants, formed part of the imperial processions. An African Johannes Morus was appointed vizier of the Kingdom of Sicily. (The etymology of the word Moor is uncertain; it can be traced to the Phoenician term “Mahurin” meaning “Westerners

Source: Encyclopedia of the World’s Minorities  By Carl Skutsch


“The Mediterranean and south-western European ports. They were the foremost among the ancient merchants. They inhabited only a narrow strip of the northern coastline of Palestine. The area was originally settled by Amorites (meaning “Westerners”), who were not necessarily Hebrews, but were a kindred people. They were Semitic, or Shemitic people, that is, they claimed descent from Shem. Although they later became very mixed with the descendants of Ham, such as the Canaanites, they had a high proportion of fair skinned, fair-haired Shemitic peoples, from whom Abraham and his family came. When Israel later settled in the Promised Land, many Israelite’s, mostly from the tribes of Dan and Zebulun, joined with them in their seafaring enterprises. In this way the forerunners of the later Israelitish migrations reached the British Isles, and they had settlements in Spain and Portugal. The Phoenicians had included Canaanites and Jebusites, as well as Israelites, but the rulers of the Phoenician and Carthaginian nations were of the Semitic stock, as we may guess from the story of Hiram, King of Tyre, in Phoenicia. He was of great assistance to King Solomon of Israel in his temple building operations of the Temple. If Hiram had not been of the original Amoritic or Shemitic stock, it is unlikely that he would have been so friendly and helpful to a king of Israel.”


Depiction of the 4 races of man, the Egyptians often showed the same order when depicting the races,


Sixth Source: M. Florian’s “History of the Moors in Spain” Page 20 also states in footnotes the term “Moor” comes from a “Hebrew” word “Mahuran“.

“The term Moors, according to Bochart, comes from a Hebrew word, Mahuran, which signifies Western.”

“Mahuran” (Hebrew) is very close in spelling and sound as the term “Mahourím (Phoenician) identified by Phillip Khuri Hitti, above.  According to Dana Reynolds-Marniche “the word Amurru is supposed to the source of the semitic-Assyrian word “Western” because the Amorites lived in the mountains West of them.

Source: History of the Moors of Spain By M. Florian

Source: The Moors in Spain: A Wonderful Chapter of the World’s Civilization, Great By Florian

Dana Reynolds-Marniche provided the following reference also which raises a significance to “Westerner” or “West“.  “THE MOGHRABIN OR MOGHRABIN XII:

“From the word “Moghrabi” the singular of Mogharba or Mograbin, through the Latin Maurus, has arisen the anglicized “Moor,” and from “Moghrab el Aksa,” “the extreme west,” the name “Morocco.” It must not, however, be assumed that all the MOGHARBA in Egypt or the Sudan came from Morocco; it is unlikely that any of them, a certain number of individuals of the merchant class excepted, did so.”

Source: A history of the Arabs in the Sudan and some account of the people who preceded them and of the tribes inhabiting Darfur

Seventh Source: Using Greek and Roman sources Frank M. Snowden has pointed out that Mauri (a northwest African people whose color received frequent notice) were described as nigri (black) and adusti (scorched). With the sudden eruption of the Arabs, during the middle of the seventh century, Mauri disappears for a time from the historical records. It reemerges, however, in medieval literature. For example, in a Middle English romance called Kyng Alisaunder (ca. 1175), the conqueror Darius has among his troops a contingent of soldiers led by Duke Mauryn. Regarding Mauryn, J.B. Friedman writes that “ … it sounds rather like Moor in this context.”

“As late as 1 398 we find the following reference to the Moors: “Also the nacyn [nation] of Maurys [Moors] they’re blacke colour comyth of the inner partes.” There are Irish records of a Viking raid on Spain and North Africa in 862. During the raid, a number of Blacks were captured and some carried to Dublin. In Ireland, they were known as “blue men” (Irish, fir gorma\ Old Norse, blamenn).”

“The entry is under the title:

Three Fragments Copied from Ancient Sources,” and sheds further light on the ethnicity of the Moors. The entry reads: After that, the Scandinavians went through the country, and ravaged it; and they burned the whole land, and they brought a great host of [the Moors] in captivity with them to Ireland. These are the ‘blue men’ (firgorma ); because the Moors are the same as negroes; Mauretania is the same as negro-land.”

Source: “Golden Age of the Moor” book under the title ” The Moor in Africa and Europe” by Ivan Van Sertima. 

According to E.J. Brill’s First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 5, edited by M. Th. Houtsma, we find the following origin of the term Moor:

“The word, presumably of Phoenician origin, corresponds to the ancient local name of the natives of Barbary reproduced by the Romans as Μαῦρο, Mauri and by the Greeks as Maurusii (Strabo vii, 825).” 

The First Encyclopedia of Islam continues:

The land of the Moors is MAURITANIA, or Mauretania. This name which has been derived either from a Phoenician word “Mauharim” [meaning] “the Westerns” or with more probability a name of a tribe living before the Christian era in North Africa……At a later date, by extending the application,  Europeans have given the general name of Moors to the Arabo-Berber peoples of Mediterranean and Saharan Africa. Then gradually they came to distinguish out of this mass the groups with which they came into frequently more contact (Tripolitans, Tunisians, Algerians, Moroccans), so that the name Moors came to be limited to people of Spanish (Muslim), Jewish or Turkish origin of North Africa and particularly to the nomads of the Sahara.” In Sumerian they [Amorites] were known as the Martu or the Tidnum (in the Ur III Period), in Akkadian by the name of “Amurru”, and in Egypt as “Amar”, all of which mean ‘westerners‘ or ‘those of the west‘, as does the Hebrew name “Amorite”.

Source:  Ancient History Encyclopedia

In Sumero-Akkadian and Eblaite texts from the period from 2400 to 1600 B.C.E., Sumerian MAR.TU, Eblaite Martu(m), and “Akkadian Amurru” occur as a geographical term meaning literally “the West.” The area extended westward from the Euphrates River as far as the Mediterranean Sea. It specifically embraced the great Syrian desert, the Orontes River valley, and the Amanus Mountains. In later Assyrian texts, “Amurru” was an established name for Syria-Palestine.”

Source: Encyclopedia Judaica: Amorites    

The Hebrew terms “maarab, mareb, marrabah and mah-ar-awb” also mean or are associated  with “West“.

Source: Strong’s Concordance.

I suspect those “Hebrew” terms are the origin of “Arab“. The Kushites had a capital in modern-day Yemen (Arabia Felix) called “Ma’rib” during the Sabaen era.

A page from Elia Levita’s 16th century Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary contains a list of nations, including the word “כושי” Cushite or Cushi, translated to Latin as “Aethiops” and into German as “Mor”. The German “Mor” or “Mohr” is translated into English as “Moor”. English descends from Old German.

Source: Dictionary Defines The Hebrew Term “Cushite” As “Moor” in English

 A Daily Bible Study article states:

The English word “west,” as we use it today, originated from an old Anglo-Saxon and Gothic (the Goths and the Saxons were Germanic tribes in north-central Europe; the Anglos were a tribe of the Saxons from whom the English people originated) root word, vas, which meant to dwell – not referring foremost to people, but to the sun. Their logic was that, just as most people go to their dwelling place at night, they regarded the “west” as the dwelling place of the sun because that’s where it went at night when it set in that direction. The original meaning of “west” was used to translate two original Hebrew words of the Holy Scriptures. One of them, pronounced yawm, means to roar. It referred to the Mediterranean Sea (although it was not known to the ancient Israelites by that name) which formed the western border of the land of Israel as a whole. The other Hebrew word is pronounced maw-ar-aw-baw; it means shading or shadows, as produced by the sun as it set in the west. To the ancient Israelites, “west” was both the end of their land, and the end of their day.

Source: Article titled Contributions and Comments documenting E. A. Wallis Budge’s association of “Amurru” with South-West.

Source: What Did West Mean To The Israelites?  

Maghreb: “The Maghreb (/ˈmʌɡrəb/; Arabic: المغرب‎, translit. al-Maɣréb, lit. ‘The West’), also known as Northwest Africa[2] or Northern Africa, Greater Arab Maghreb (Arabic: المغرب العربي الكبير‎, translit. al-Maghrib al-ʿArabi al-Kabir), Arab Maghreb (Arabic: المغرب العربي‎, translit. al-Maghrib al-ʿArabi) or Greater Maghreb (Arabic: المغرب الكبير‎, translit. al-Maghrib al-Kabīr), or by some sources the Berber world, Barbary and Berbery, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania. It additionally includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara (mostly controlled by Morocco) and the cities of Melilla and Ceuta (both controlled by Spain and claimed by Morocco). As of 2018, the region has a population of over 100 million people. “

Source: Africa…North Africa by Augustus Henry Keane Page 29 states: 

“Mauritania, by which most of this region was known to them, being derived from a native word mahur, maur, the “west,” whence the Mahurim of the Phoenicians, and the Mauri of the Greeks and Romans. Later the expression “Barbary States,” which had reference to the indigenous Berber populations, came into general use, and is not yet quite obsolete.” Page 77  states:

“In ancient times the most general name of the Atlas populations appears to have been Mahur, that is “Highlanders,” whence the Roman Mauri, and Mauri-tania, “Mauri-land.” But in the course of ages, this word Mauri has undergone strange vicissitudes. Under the various forms of Moro, Morisco, Moor, it came to be applied in a vague way to all the natives of North Africa, and the more particularly to the Negroes or blacks (compare “Blackamoor”), who were popularly supposed to be the exclusive inhabitants of the African continent.”

Source:  The book Plurality of the Human Race: According to the Teachings Both of the Bible By Edwin Henderson Randle states on page 155:

“…name of Mahras of Hamitic origin, whose language has greatly aided in unlocking the ancient Hamitic tongues. Compare this with Mauri (the Moors) and Mahur (the West), and their sameness of origin will at once be suggested. If correct, the Mauri did not take their name from Mahur (the West), else how did the Mahras of the South get their name. Is it not more reasonable to suppose that all three find a common origin in Mizraim or some of its varied forms?”

Source: The Imperial Gazetteer: A General Dictionary of Geography …, Volume 2 has an entire section on “Marocco Page 306 states:

” The belief that their name was derived from a Greek word which signifies black is evidently without foundation; for the inhabitants of N.W. angle of Africa are not and never were black; and besides, the Romans, though they used the name Mauri; preferred calling the people Maurusii, a variation which evidently discountenances the proposed Greek etymology. It is more likely the name Mauri was derived from a Semitic word [Hebrew, Mahur) signifying the West, so that is was, in fact, equivalent to the Maghrebi of the present day. At all events, the inhabitants of the Iberian peninsula knew the occupants of the opposite African coasts under no other name than that of Maurusii, Mauri, or Moors; and consequently, when, at the commencement of the 8th century, the Arabs carried their victorious arms from W. Barbary into Spain, they were generally called by Spanish writers, the Moors; the name comprising the Berbers as well as the pure Arab tribes and dynasties which for some centuries ruled in Spain.”

Source: A book titled: Our Vulgar Tongue: A Lecture on Language in General, with a Few Words on …By Samuel Lysons states:

“Marning,” as we pronounce the word “morning,” corresponds with “Mahur” of the Hebrew, and this word again is found among the aborigines of Western Australia and in Spain, with nearly the same sound and spelling.

Source: The Encyclopaedia Londinensis, Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts …, Volume 14 states:

“Mauritania and Maurufia, the names of this country, are derived from the Mauri, an ancient people who inhabited it; and Bochart considers Maurus as equivalent to Maur, or Maur, i.e. one from the west or an occidentalist, Mauritania being west of Carthage and Phoenicia. This country, it is well known, before also the name of Barbary, of which there are several derivations. To those that occur under BARBARY, vol. ii. we shall here add that the name may be formed from the oriental Bar Barca, or the Sea of Barca, a town of the Pentapolis, called afterward Ptolemans.”

“The origin of the name is doubtful. Some derive it from the word BapBapoi(barbarians) employed first by the Greeks and later by the Romans. Others attribute it to the Arab conquerors. Tribal titles, Barabara and Beraberata, appear in 1700 and 1300 BC and the Berbers were known to the Egyptians as “Lebu,” “Mashuasha,” “Tamahu,” “Tehennu” and “Kahaka”; a long list of names is found in Herodotus; and the Romans called them Numidae, Gaetuli and Mauri, terms derived from the Greek vomaves (nomads), the name Gued’oula, of a great Berber tribe, and the Hebrew ‘mahur‘ (western).”

Source: blog states: 

Source: has an article on “Berbers” which states: 

BERBERS, the name of the various branches of the indigenous “Libyan” race of North Africa. Since the dawn of history, the Berbers have occupied the tract between the Mediterranean and the Sahara from Egypt to the Atlantic. The origin of the name is doubtful. Some derive it from the word (36,pi3apot (barbarians), employed first by the Greeks and later by the Romans.”

“Others attribute it to the Arab conquerors. Tribal titles, Barabara and Beraberata, appear in Egyptian inscriptions of 170o and 130o B.C., and the Berbers were known to the Egyptians as “Lebu,” “Mashu asha,” “Tamahu,” “Tehennu” and “Kahaka”; a long list of names is found in Herodotus; and the Romans called them Numidae, Gaetuli and Mauri, terms derived respectively from the Greek voµuBES (nomads), the name Gued’oula, of a great Berber tribe, and the Hebrew mahur (western). In regard to the ethnic relations of the Berbers, on the monuments of Egypt, their ancestors are pictured with the comparatively blond features which many of them still display.”

“Though considerable individual differences of type may be found in every village, the Berbers are distinctively a “white” race. Dark hair and brown or hazel eyes are the rules; blue-eyed blonds are found, but their frequency has been considerably overstated. The invaders who have most affected the Berber race are the Arabs, but the two races, with a common religion, often a common government, and the same tribal groupings, have failed to amalgamate to any great extent. The Berber is straightforward, honest, by no means averse to money-making, but not unscrupulous in the methods which he employs to this end, and trustworthy.”

 “To the Egyptians they were known as ” Lebu,” ” Mashuasha,” ” Tamahu,” ” Tehennu ” and ” Kahaka “; a long list of names is found in Herodotus, and the Romans called them Numidae, Gaetuli and Mauri, terms which have been derived respectively from the Greek voµaSes (nomads), the name Gued’oula, of a great Berber tribe, and the Hebrew mahur (western).”

Source: Blog titled: “Nomads Sentence Examples”

Twentieth Source: The word Moor is derived from the Phoenician term “Mauharim” and not the Greek or Roman languages in origin.

Source: article by BY WARLOCK ASYLUM ON JANUARY 28, 2019 

Twenty First Source: “This early Phoenician title of MuruMerMarutu or Martu, meaning “Of the Western Sea (or Sea of the Setting Sun)”, which now seems obviously the Phoenician source of the name “Mauretania,” or “Morocco” with its teeming megaliths, and of “Morbihan” (or LittleMor“) in Brittany, with its Sun-cult megaliths, is also found in several of the old mining and trading centres of the earlier Phoenicians in Britain, associated with Stone Circles and megaliths and mostly on the coast, e.g., Mori-dunum, port of Romans in Devon, and several More-dun, Mor-ton and Martin, Caser Marthen, West Mor-land, rich in circles and old mines, More-cambe Bay, Moray and its Frith and seat of Murray clan, &c.” 

Source: The Phoenician Origin of Britons Scots and Anglo-Saxons by Laurence Waddell

“Now, there was probably some difference between a “Moor” and a “Saracen,” although in heraldry there does not seem to be much distinction. The Algerine pirates who made occasional descents upon our coast, were probably the latest wearers of this title. “The opinion which has been most generally supported, and prevails at the present time, is that the word was originally Sharkeyn,” an Arabian word signifying “eastern people,” and used in contradistinction to Maghribe, or “western people,” the Moors of Morocco. While, therefore, all Saracens were Moors, all Moors were not necessarily Saracens. But at any rate, the term “Saracen” has been applied to the piratical invaders of this country from a very early period.”

Source: Ancient and Modern Britons: A Retrospect, Volume 1 By David MacRitchie