Muslims in America: Examining the Facts by Dr. Craig Considine

“The Facts: Unbeknownst to many Americans today, the United States has never existed without the presence of Muslims. Several studies elaborate on how the history of Muslims in America was immeasurably augmented by the transatlantic slave trade. As many as 15 million West Africans were enslaved by Europeans beginning in the 16th century (Diouf, 1998). Among those West Africans, approximately 10 to 20 percent were Muslim (Austin, 1997). Other scholars have suggested that upward of 30 percent of all enslaved Africans were Muslims (Ahmed, 2003).”

“The Muslims who were enslaved and brought to the Americas are thought to have been mostly well learned and literate. Consistent with the basic teachings of Islam, education was paramount to the West African civilizations. Timbuktu, in modern-day Mali, was one of the great centers of learning in the world, with libraries having up to 700 volumes and numerous schools ( well over 150 during the 16th century) ( Dirks, 2006).”

“Most of the Muslim slaves from West Africa were literate in at least Arabic, and it has been estimated that the percentage of literacy in Arabic among African slaves was actually higher than the percentage of literacy in English among their Christian owners (Dirks, 2006).”

“Al Haj Omar Ibn Said, a notable American Muslim slave with family roots in West Africa, is said to have been born and educated in the modern country of Senegal, where he served as an Islamic scholar of the Fula people. He is known for 14 documents that he wrote in Arabic, including an autobiography that detailed his life as a trader, soldier, and faithful Muslim. Said wrote that he performed the hajj, an Arabic word referring to the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, required by all Muslims (Considine, 2017: 185 ), and studied the Qur’an for 25 years before being sold into slavery in 1807 (The Pluralism Project, n.d. ).”

“Said’s handwritten works are now part of the North Carolina Collection in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Today, in Fayetteville, North Carolina, the Omar Ibn Said mosque on Southern Avenue stands as a testament to his legacy. A nearby historical marker notes that Said was a slave, scholar, and African-born author who penned in autobiography in Arabic. Other details of his life on the marker show that he lived in Blady County and worshipped with local Presbyterians. Muslims from the territories of North Africa and the Ottoman Empire are considered to be the second group of Muslims to arrive on U.S. soil.”

“One European Christian, the English sea captain and privateer Sir Francis Drake, commanded 25 to 30 English ships, whose shipmen liberated approximately 500 prisoners at Saint Augustine in Florida between 1585 and 1586. Dirks ( 2006) notes that about 300 or more of these liberated slaves were North African and Turkish galley slaves. North African and Ottoman captives from the Mediterranean region, usually called Moors and Turks, respectively, were needed to perform menial duties for their Spanish overlords in places such a5 Saint Augustine. Further evidence of Muslim galley slaves in the Americas is documented by the Smithsonian, which estimated that many of the Colombian city of Cartagena’s slave population were Muslims.”

In 1586, Drake besieged and captured the town, instructing his men to treat Frenchmen, Turks, and black Africans with respect (Lawler, 201 7). Edward D. Neill, an historian of early American history, wrote in his book The Virginia Carolorum that several shipments of Turkish and Armenian indentured servants, both men and women, were present in the British colony of Jamestown, Virginia, in the early 17th century, meaning that the slaves Drake captured were likely of Turkish and Armenian descent (Neill, 1886).”

“These hypotheses are confirmed in recordings by The Virginia Carolorum, which note that several of the Turks in Jam es town included the names “Mehmet the Turk,” “Ahmad the Turk,” “Joseph the Armenian,” and “Sayyan Turk” (Neill, 1886). A 1652 colonial document also refers to a “Turk” in Virginia, who wrote in the Turkish language. In the same year, Governor William Boyd of Virginia referred to a Turkish merchant in a letter (Dirks, 2006).”

“An obscure group known as the Melungeons also had a presence in precolonial and colonial America. Of mixed racial background, the Melungeons settled in the Appalachian region as early as the 17th century (Dirks, 2006). According to Wayne Winkler (2004), the Melungeons are a hybrid group with African, Middle Eastern, and Mediterranean ancestry.”

“A DNA study published in the Journal of Genetic Genealogy in 2012 found that Melungeon families are the offspring of sub-Saharan African men and white women of northern or central European origin. Further details about the ancestry of the Melungeons are provided by Kathy Lyday, a researcher based at Elon University. Lyday claims that a Spanish influence is likely, given that the Southwest and the mountains were explored and settled by Spaniards as far back as Hernando de Soto, a conquistador who marched through the region in 1540 (Neal, 2015 ). These Spaniards likely brought African Muslim slaves with them, and they probably intermarried with Natives.”

Source: Muslims in America: Examining the Facts

Original Arabs and Strabo’s Geography of Ancient Arabia

Dana Reynolds-Marniche posted on Facebook the following information demonstrating the fact that many laymen are simply not aware of in relation to the “Moors” and the “original Arabs“.

Professor Marniche addressed their part in bringing the Renaissance and Islam to Europe and how they have been written out of history and how an individual on Facebook contended “near black Arabs” found on Blogspot and other sites have been “Arabized”. I am familiar with this type of application of the term “Arabized”, in my recollection it is often used in the same manner within the Black Power or House of Consciousness communities and their train of thought on the subject.

This line of thought among “African (Black) Americans” is rather “White Supremacist” in nature  and a testament to their ignorance as to their own history. Obviously, the resolve of the “White Supremacist” governed educational institutions, along with our failure to make fact-checking a standard operating procedure. Many of us are accustomed to parroting information we have come across, with authenticating that information.

Nonetheless, Professor Marniche shared the fact that Arabia was essentially a part of Africa. 2000 years ago, and vice versa. The “African American” or “Black” individual didn’t want to accept that historical fact, nor additional fact Professor Marniche provided regarding “Strabo” and “Diodorus” and other ancient’s who identified everything East of the Nile as  “Arabia” which was due to the fact that there was no difference in the populations in that period.

Citing Dana Reynolds-Marniche:

“The country between the Nile and the Arabian Gulf is Arabia, and at its extremity is situated Pelusium. But the whole is desert, and not passable by an army… [22]”

Strabo 17.1



WHEN we were describing Arabia, we included in the description the gulfs which compress and make it a peninsula, namely the Gulfs of Arabia and of Persis. We described at the same time some parts of Egypt, and those of Ethiopia, inhabited by the Troglodytæ, and by the people situated next to them, extending to the confines of the Cinnamon country.”  (Dana Reynolds-Marniche Quoting Strabo Book 17.1)


“Most African Americans have a stereotype of an Arab in their head through years of brainwashing. In the World History class, I was “teaching” the book had no Arabs of color in it nor Arabians in the chapters on Islam. So, I put some of the photos on this page up in the room of the earliest Arabs and Berbers (or what were called Moors) and also had some of the kids make a mural of the Gurunsi home of Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) with ancient Saharan Moorish motif (see below).”


 “The only black people I saw in this World History book were people of the Nok culture in Nigeria. lol! Not that there was anything wrong about the Nok but, this is just what I’m talking about. The suggestion that the original Muslims and Semitic-speakers and culture were not the same people that are now in black Africa [Sub-Saharan Africa] is completely inaccurate and yet that is being promoted by Egyptologists like the one I met at the University of Pennsylvania when Zahi was there lecturing. The curator is responsible for the sculpture of Tut that looks rather more Armenian than the African son or grandson of Tiye he was.”

“The modern Middle East had very little to do with ancient Arabs i.e. Arabians, except that the Yarabof the Qahtan actually fought against the Assyrians centuries after an earlier wave had brought the Akkadian and Amorite (Thamudic-Nabataean-Phoenician) dialects to Babylon. The Assyrians who in the era of Sargon and Shalmanezzar were essentially neither “red” nor “black”, because their ancestors were both non-black Kurds or “Guti” indigenous to the Zagros and the early Semites i.e. the blacks ancestral to Nabataeans, Sulaym-Solymi and the like. They attacked the Yemenites in the days of Jeremiah who fled to the Hijaz. The earliest Assyrians, however, were the Akkadians and were Afro-Asiatic like the most ancient Arabians, Moors, Ghawrani (people of the Jordan Valley) and Egyptians, etc.”

“….dealing with the Hebraic and Canaanite origins of the Berbers, i.e. the original Zaghai/Soninke/Kanuri and Tuareg peoples.”

“In detail, we would talk about how the knowledge got lost, and things like the evidence for the movement across Africa, and the new research or discoveries that are proving these Africans didn’t just make up a Yemenite i.e. Canaanite origin for themselves based on Arabic or Islamic sources. We would also discuss the affinity, connections and identity of African, Canaanite, Sabaean and Indic pantheons, mythologies or deities and their link to the names of the so-called Prophets of the book of Genesis.”

“Beni Ka’ab tribe – were from the Beni Amer b. Zaza’a who settled in Iraq and the Persian Gulf. From them were the al-Muntafiq and Uqayl – rulers of southern Mesopotamia up until the 17th century. They were the so called “Ishmaelites’ or northern Arabs of Mudar and Adnan. When I first posted about the Ka’ab Arabs on Africaresource site I couldn’t find a photo of the Ka’b who were described by Rawlinson as of the color of Ethiopians or “Abyssinians”.

“Below are photos of Ka’b tribal chiefs. Here are excerpts from that post on the “Ka’b Bin Rabia bin Amir bin Sa’sa’ah: Settlements in Arabia”

“In 1881 G. Rawlinson wrote, “The Cha’ab Arabs, the present possessors of the more southern parts of Babylonia are nearly black and the ‘black Syrians’ of whom Strabo speaks seem to represent the Babylonians.” From The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World: Or, The History, Geography, and Antiquities of Chaldea, Assyria, Babylon, Media, and Persia, Vol. II”

“Elsewhere, Rawlinson refers to the Ka’b of the Banu Amir and their sub-tribe of Montefik (or the al-Muntafiq bin Uqayl bin Ka’b) as having the complexion similar to that of “Abyssinians” and “Galla” Ethiopians. from Vol. 1 of The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient World: Or, The History, Geography, and Antiquities of Chaldea, Assyria, Babylon, Media, Perisa parthia and Sassanian or new Persian Empire. , Vol. 1 (07) p.35.”

“Having left the Hejaz of Western Arabia before the Christian era, many of the tribes of of the Hawazin were domiciled in Central Arabia (the Nejd) with a stronghold in Yemamah at the time of the Prophet. After taking up the banner of Islam the tribe of Ka’ab bin Rabia, a son of Beni Amir bin Za’za’ah, and Ka’ab’s descendants, Uqayl bin Kaab, Muntafiq bin Uqayl bin Kaab (to whom belonged the tribe Khuza’il), Jada’ah bin Ka’ab, Kilab and Kulaib bin Ka’b, Al Harish bin Ka’b and their sub-clans left the southwest of Yemamah (north of the Rub al Khali) around the 8th-9th century and headed for Iraq and Syria in support of other Arabian followers of Mohammed who had settled those countries.”

“The further one goes back in the Yemen the more African the sculptures look as with this figurine from the 6th century BC.”

“This is a painting of the 12th century Constantine Manasses Chronicle with miniatures scanned of the 14th century manuscript (from Vatican: Cod. Vaticanus, slav. II – from Bulgarski hudojnik” Publishing house, Sofia, 1962) – supposedly showing Persians being invaded by Byzantines under emperor Heraclius who lived during the time of Khalid ibn Walid, the invader of Sassanid Persia. Heraclius is said to have used a large contingent of Christian Arabs and the men thus depicted here are likely still Arabs but Christian Arabs of which there were many in pre-Mohammedan times in Syria. At the Battle of Firaz, the Rashidun Arabs (15,000 men) under Khalid ibn al-Walid defeat the combined forces of the Byzantine Empire, Persian Empire and Arab Christians (at least 10 times larger than Khalid’s army) in Mesopotamia (Iraq).[20]”

“Heraclius and his Arab, neo Roman and Frank troops fought against the Muslim expansion taking place under Khalid. “After the devastating blow to the Sassanid Persians at Firaz, the Muslim Arab forces, under the command of Khalid ibn al-Walid, took on the army of the Christian Byzantine Empire at Yarmouk near the border of modern-day Syria and Jordan. The major battle was to continue for six days. After the victory at Firaz, Khalid had virtually conquered Mesopotamia. Seeking to halt Muslim expansion, the Byzantines rallied all available forces. Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, the victor of Nineveh, allied himself with the Sassanids, the two empires seeking to pool their depleted resources to stop the Arab advance.” Khalid al Walid was the Prophet’s cousin. Also known as” the drawn sword of Allah.”- described as black -skinned. His con quest lead to the rise of the dynasty of the four “rightly guided caliphs. This was during the Rashidun caliphate (Kalifah ar- Rasidah) – 7th century The ancient indigenous people of Yarmouk were also Canaani and Nabataean in or origin, which is why you see dark brown and black people in the painting).”

“They were under the rule of the Byzantines or neo-Romans, until the armies of the Prophet’s kin came and changed everything. “In its time, the Rashidun army was one of the most powerful and effective military forces in the world. The size of the Rashidun army was initially 13,000 troops in 632, but as the Caliphate expanded, the army gradually grew to 100,000 troops by 657. The two most successful generals of the Rashidun army were Khalid ibn al-Walid, who conquered Persian Mesopotamia and conquered Roman Syria, and ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, who conquered Roman Egypt.” Today the black army of Yarmouk still call themselves Jaysh Khalid ibn al-Walid. Their ancestors were the men that converted many of the people of the Near East and Central Asia to Islam.”

“Of the sons of Manasseh: of Machir, the family of the Machirites: and Machir begat Gilead: of Gilead come the family of the Gileadites. These are the sons of Gilead…  Numbers 26:29

“The al-Makhārim or Makharib[1] in the southern Nejd of Central Arabia are part of the Farjan Division of the al Hasan Dawasir (Kupershoek, (pp. 45, 84, and 211; Lorimer, 1908, p. 394).    They may have been the same as seem to have been called “Makhar”, “Makhir” in Yemen. Al-Makir is a place in Sana’a in Yemen, and there is an al-Manasseh in the area of eastern Yemen. (In fact, the name of the tribe of Farjan is found as “Faraj” in Yemen.) The tribes of Mansur and Manase’ir are found in Yemen, in southern Nejd and in Oman (Winder, R. Bayly, 2015, p. 150; Philby, Harry, St. John, 1923, p. 48; Hamza, Fu’ad,  p. 33). “

“The people across the sea on the coast of Somalia calling themselves Macherten or Majeerten named the area the coast of Makhir or Makhar of Somalia. In addition, the Makhir coast is mentioned in connection with area of Galadi or Geledi after the Somali clan name on the border between Somalia and Ethiopia by European colonialists and according to one 19th century account, “some of the Mahra tribe who occupy the opposite Arabian coast have a tradition that the Somal are descended from them and call them Beni Am or cousins” (Hunter, F. M., 1877, p. 158). The real reason for why they are called Beni Am may have been lost in translation, however, when one notes that the father of one biblical “Machir” is named “Ammi-el”, from the tribe of Dan.[2]

“These Galadi of Somalia belong to the Rahawayn (or Rahanwayn) tribe of the “Samaal” (Somalis), whose name is strikingly like and may be connected with the Al-Rahawiyyin, branch of Madhhij (Haykal, Muhammad, 1976, p. 456) across the sea in Yemen.”

“The Mahra, themselves, are in certain sources from Qudā’a and Hamdan, and mentioned in ancient inscriptions.  They are traditionally thought to have come from the al-Hayf or  Ba’al-Haf of Yemen (considered to be associated with the ancient Haiapa in “Samaria” of Assyrian record and by Orientalists “Ephah” of Midian) (still in Yemen), who derive from the ancient Hamdan, mentioned in Sabaean inscriptions (Irfan, Shahid, 1989, p. 344; ). They are thus closely related to the Maddhij, from whom came Ash’ar or “al Ash’arayn” and the Tayy.”

“Thus it would appear that, along with Jokshan (Ghassān), the Midianites “descendants of Keturah” – Al-Kathira, Asherites -Ash’ar, Caleb – Kalb, and Jephunah – Jufayneh, the descendants of Manasseh “son of Joseph”,or Manase’ir or Machir or Makhir “son of Manasseh”, Galadi – Galad/Gilead, “son of Machir”, and perhaps “Ammi’el” –seem to have been just a few of the numerous people with Israelite connections in the southern Yemenite  region at an early period.”[3]

“In fact, at this juncture one can point to the “Kedem” or “Kadmonites” – ancient and modern Qudman, possibly named for Dhu Yaqdam b. Sawar (Robin, Christian, 2008, p. 282). In the land of the Kadmonites, the biblical Abraham settled the children of “Keturah”. The Qudman or Qidman of Yemen who are also found today as far north as the Huwaytat al- Tihama, were among the early settlers of Moqadishu in Somalia (Hamza, F., p. 21; Chittick, Neville, 1982, p. 52).”[4]

“As shown, due to the ancient movement of groups from the Yemen northward over thousands of years there tends to be a noticeable similarity between the names of groups further north in the Hijaz and Tihama extending to the Yemen.  Many bear resemblances to those of the biblical people of “Judah”, which include those that appear as descendants of “Manasseh” and “Salma”. The problem is that these names, which are very numerous, also belong to clans or tribes that, according to documented history and tradition, have come from further south, ultimately originating in the Yemen, rather than from the Levant.”

[1]  See p. 1908 of Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Vol. II, Geographical and Statistical by John G. Lorimer, which says the Makharim Dawasir are also called Makharib, p. 394.

[2] “Machir, son of Ammiel was the name of a descendant of the Machir …, who resided at Lo-Debar” There is a town Dabar in Yemen in the Hajji region. The name “Ammiel” is said to mean kinsmen of El or God.

[3] “Machir, son of Ammiel was the name of a descendant of the Machir …, who resided at Lo-Debar” There is a town Dabar in Yemen in the Hajji region. The name “Ammiel” is said to mean cousins or kinsmen of El or God. And the Makhir coast is also known as Debir. According to an early observer, the eastern and western parts of the Somalia are “are known and by the Arabs as ‘ Makhar ‘ and ‘ Dabir ‘ respectively.” See Frederick Mercer Hunter’s, An Account of British Settlement of Aden in Arabia. 1877, London: Trubner and Co.

[4]  See Medieval Mogadishu p. 52  “the people of Mogadishu formed a federation of Five tribes, of thirty-nine clans; of these tribes the dominant one in the religious and judicial field was the Qahtani (Maqarri, who eventually became known by the Somali term Rer Faqi), who dispute with the Qudman (Afifi) the honour of being the first immigrants.  The federation was governed by a council of elders of these five tribes.” Neville Chittick, 1982.  ‘Afif remains the name of a tribe and dynasty in modern Yemen (See p. 14, of M. C. Lake’s South-West Arabia, op. cit.)

Source: The African and Arabian Origin of the Hebrew Bible: Exegesis in Light of Inscriptions, Folkloric History and Early Ethnography of the Arabian Peninsula (Book Excerpt)


“…let is suffice to say, that nearly certain ground exist for the belief that the original Moors were Arabians. In confirmation of this impression, we find that, during every period of the existence of their race, the descendants of the primitive inhabitants of Mauritania have, like the Arabs, been divided into distinct tribes, and, like them, have pursued a wild and wandering modern of existence.”

Source: History of the Moors of Spain By M. Florian

Source: The Moors in Spain: A Wonderful Chapter of the World’s Civilization, Great By Florian


1468 Songhai invaded Timbuktu and conquered Berbers

The Songhai Empire was the largest empire and became the last of the three major empires in West Africa. The empire existed from circa 1375 to 1591. It was one of the largest Muslim-populated empires in history.

The rise of Songhai was due to the decline of the Mali Empire after the death of its last and strongest king, Mansa Musa, in 1337.

The decline was traced to the period when Emperor Mansa Musa embarked on an extravagant pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca. The king also failed to stop the invasion of Berber conquerors, who ruled Timbuktu for some time.

Subsequently, Sunni Ali in 1468 became the leader of Songhai, invaded Timbuktu, and conquered the Berbers.

He began a campaign of conquest and established the capital of the empire at Gao on the Niger River.

The Tomb of Askia the Great and evidently the most important of all emperors of the West African ancient empires was built in Songhai. The mosque in Gao is one of the most notable in West Africa.

The empire gained more recognition and importance through the control of the trade routes and the trade in slaves. Songhai eventually took control of Timbuktu and Jenne (Kabir Abdlkareem)

Citing African Kingdoms: An Encyclopedia of Empires and Civilizations

Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History (Transatlantic Relations)

“Portuguese slavery inherited the Roman peculium, the practice by which slaves could have their own property and reap the fruits of their work. Portuguese slavery, like its Spanish counterpart, rested heavily on the Roman, Visigothic, and Muslim law and practice. That is, slavery was a temporary situation in which freedom was always the ultimate goal. In the search for workers, Portuguese colonizers used different free and coerced labor, including free workers, Iberian migrants, and Berber or black African slaves; all were put to work (under various terms) on the islands. However, the preference for slave labor on the Atlantic islands later influenced the labor patters the Portuguese would use in plantation Brazil. “

“Slavery had long been known in Iberia, but slaves never constituted more than a small percentage of society. By 1492, although more than 35,000 black slaves had been introduced in Portugal, most of them were intended to be reexported to other European markets and to the Americas. By 1550, there were 9,500 African slaves in Lisbon–comprising nearly 10 percent of the total population–and 32,370 slaves and 2,580 freedmen in Portugal as a whole. Black slaves increasingly replaced slaves from other racial origins as the Portuguese became less involved in the wars against the Turks in the Mediterranean and in general against Muslims.”

“The Moors were visible in Portugal in the most southern part of the country, where a relatively large population of Christianized Moors (Moriscos) toiled the fields and worked as artisans in towns and cities.  The term Moors, derived from Mauritania, designated those Muslims and their descendants from the north of Africa who established themselves in Spain through different waves of Islamic invasions beginning in 711. In general, the Christian monarchs, who conquered Iberian dominions from Islam during the Middle Ages respected the customs and religion of the Mudejar, or Muslims among Christians, in exchange for obedience and heavy taxes. These mudejars, in spite of their marginal status, reached important numbers at given times and places.”

“Towards the end of the fifteenth century, mudejars constituted a minority in Castile and Navarre. On the other hand, in the Kingdom of Granada, the mudejars vastly outnumbered old Christians. Large groups of Moors also resided in Aragon and, above all, in Valencia, where nobles received and protected them in their seigniorial dominions in exhcange for submission and cheap labor. In spite of apperanaces, there was always a fraigle equilibrium in the coexistence not convivencia (harmonious cohabitation), between Muslims and Christians.”

“In addition to an ancestral hatred, those Chistians who, encouraged by the Crown, settled in the Moors’ territory also usurped their principal economic resources. At the same time, ecclesiastical authorities persistently worked to coerce and to assimilate the Islamic population. Together, these circumstances produced an inevitable clash of civilizations. Such confrontations culminated in the rebellion of the Moors of the Alpujarras region of Granda in 1499, which led the Catholic Monarchs to order the general conversion of all the mudejars of Granada to Christianity and the expulsion of those who refused baptism. The forcefully converted were known as Moriscos or new Christians. Although Charles V conceded the moriscos forty years grace from the Inquisition in order to achieve full integration in the Christian population many continued practicing their religion and defending their customs against the acculturating policies of Church and Crown.”

“The title and the practice of granting hidalgo status for meritorious service to the Crown began when the Christian kings of the northern peninsula first set out on the Reconquista, the campaign to drive the Moors from the Iberian Peninsula, a quest that lasted more than 700 years. By 1492, when the southernmost Moorish stronghold of Granada was finally overcome and Jews were also compelled to convert to Christianity, it became all the more imperative for men from central and southern Iberia, especially those whose purity of blood (religious heritage) might otherwise be questioned, to validate their loyalty, merit, and service by somehow achieving the status of Hidalgo.” 

See Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History 3 Vols: Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History (Transatlantic Relations), 3 Volumes Set

England And The Discovery Of America, 1481-1620

2228330691The narrative is familiar; the Cabot voyages, the grace of Shadowy ventures in Henry VIII’s reign, and of course the Elizabethan experiments. There are chapters “Sailor and the Sea in the Elizabethan England” and “England and the St. Lawrence, 1577-1502,” which last records many hitherto obscure ventures….”There he freed some 200 Moors and Negroes from among the galley slaves (offering to bring the Moors back to their own country). “Many negroes belonging to private persons” we are told “went with them of their own free will,” and though their owners offered to buy them back, “the English would not give them up except when the….” Click Here for BOOK REVIEWS to Read Moor: See England and the discovery of America, 1481-1620: from the Bristol v…