In 990 a.d. the empire of Ghana annexed the Saharan city of Awdaghust

“In 990 The empire of Ghana annexes the Saharan city of Awdaghust. In 1077-1078 Almoravids take over Tanger, fight the empire of Ghana, and control the trans-Saharan caravan trade; birth of Ibn Tumart, the Almohad Mahdi; Bijaia becomes the captial of the Hammadid dynasty.”

“Sijilmassa is known for its historical role in the trans-Saharan gold trade with ancient Ghana. From the 11th to the 14th centuries, trans-Saharan trade was regulated an attraced Arab, Muslim, and Jewish merchants from the East and Muslim Spain. Gold was transported north to Sijilmassa and then west to Fes, and during this period Sijilmassa had a mint which issued its first coins in 947.”

“Almoravids (1061-1147). The name “Almoravids,” by which the movement is known in Western scholarship, is a Spanish corruption of the Arabic Al-Murabitun and designates a Sanhaja Berber dynasty that ruled over Morocco, western Algeria and al-Andalus. The Almoravids were brought to power by the theologian ‘Abd Allah Ibn Yasin and his reformist holy warriors (al-murabitun).”

“They conquered the Soninke kingdom of Ghana and laid siege to Sijilmasa in 1055-1056. Fes was taken in 1069, and Algiers was brought under their control in 1082 after taking Tlemecen and Oran. The Almoravids also controlled parts of Spain after a solid victory against Alphonso VI in 1086. A relative of the first disciples, Yusuf Ibn Tashafin (1061-1107), who built Marrakech in 1060, became the first founder of the dynasty, which despite its short life left tremendous political and cultural impacts of the historical map of North Africa, Spain, and the Sahara Desert.

“The Almoravids reached their zenith under Ibn Tasafin’s rule. As a result of the establishment of the Almoravids in Spain, North Africa recieved a cultural infusion from Andalusia. The Malikite shcool of law also entrenched itself in North Africa. Opposition to Islamic practices which were limited to the literal and anthromorphic conception of the word of the Qur’an fell into rigidity, and this state of affairs triggered religous and political opposition.”

“In Andalusia, it led to a new disintegration into numerous city-states, and in the Atlas Mountains to a revolt of the Masmuda tribes, inspired by the teachings of the religous reformer Mahdi Ibn Tumart. In addition to constant Chrisitan assaults, the Almoravids would finally succumb to the overwhelimg campaings of the warrairo-monks, the Almohads, as Marrakech was taken in 1147.”

Source: Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen) By Hsain Ilahiane


Portia & the Prince of Morocco Essay By Ungerer, Gustav

It is likely that such facts are omitted for the purposes of suppressing other realities that exist. For example, England entered into several treaties with Morocco in the 16th century prohibiting slavery long before the British implemented a public ban on the slave trade and before the United States enacted the Thirteenth Amendment.

Most discussions about Black History in America revolve around the expeditions taken after those that follow the adventures of the Barbary Company and the practices of English merchants in Andalusia preceding the formation of that company.

Questions about where the destination of slaves sold in Andalusia to English merchants is often not asked by African Americans because of the omissions of the English role in the Barbary aspect of the Atlantic Slave Trade which preceded English activity further south into West Africa.

“All the concerns of this essay begin in Andalusia. Slavery was a matter, raised by Shylock at his trial, in the Merchant of Venice narrative. This topic is of cultural relevance to early modern English audiences.” 

“The bottom lines become clear in the earliest records of the English slave trade to which English American historiographers often omit from the discussion.” 

“Records show that the first English slaveholders and traders of “enslaved Moors” were the English merchant’s resident in Andalusia in the last decades of the fifteenth and early decades of the sixteenth centuries, and further, that the English were the pioneers of the English slave trade with Morocco. … “

16th Century AD Medieval Iberian Moriscos Silver Carnealian Ring


This is a beautiful complete original example of a silver Moriscos (Moorish), late Medieval ring from Iberia – modern day Spain and Portugal. The ring is dated Circa: 15th – 16th Century. The band is silver and convex in section which rises to the shoulders which, are detailed with three silver nodules. The bezel is circular and rises to form a collar which is decorated with detailed scroll-work and above which is seen tri-form silver roundels around the circumference of the collar case. The setting is that of a fire colored red to orange Carnelian gem. The gem details wonderful separation striations between the deep red and orange color tones.




The ring details original dark silver-oxide patination tones particularly to the inside band. The outside areas of a wonderful original silver aged tone with lighter silver tones seen only on worn areas. Ring size at UK Size N 1/2, US Ring and Canada Ring size 7: @ 9.5 grams: My ring grade Very Fine: Provenance: I acquired this ring in 2013 from a Private Spanish Collector on the London Art Market.

The Moriscos (Moorish) Notes: 13th Century Onward:
il_570xn-658578023_ri47The Moorish Kingdom of Granada continued for three more centuries in southern Iberia. On January 2, 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in Granada surrendered to armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, the Catholic Monarchs). They forced the remaining Jews to leave Spain, convert to Roman Catholic Christianity or be killed for not doing so. To exert social and religious control, in 1480, Isabella and Ferdinand agreed to allow the Inquisition in Spain. Granada’s Muslim population rebelled in 1499. The revolt lasted until early 1501, giving the Castilian authorities an excuse to void the terms of the Treaty of Granada (1491). In 1501 Castilian authorities delivered an ultimatum to Granada’s Muslims: they could either convert to Christianity or be expelled.

The Inquisition was aimed mostly at Jews and Muslims who had overtly converted to Christianity but were thought to be practicing their faiths secretly. They were respectively called marranos and moriscos. However, in 1567 King Philip II directed Moriscos to give up their Arabic names and traditional dress, and prohibited the use of the Arabic language. In reaction, there was a Morisco uprising in the Alpujarras from 1568 to 1571. In the years from 1609 to 1614, the government expelled Moriscos. The historian Henri Lapeyre estimated that this affected 300,000 out of an estimated total of 8 million inhabitants

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  • Vintage item
  • Materials: Antique Silver Ring, Moorish Silver, Moorish Ring, Spanish Ring, Medieval Ring, Carnelian Ring, Magical Ring, Iberian Silver, Iberian Ring
  • Feedback: 30 reviews 
  • Ships worldwide from Yaxley, United Kingdom

Ring Grade Scale Meanings:

Extremely Fine:
Perfect in my opinion in all regards.

Very Fine:
Near perfect oval band, setting and gem stone or intaglio representation (note the description for specific listing guidance).

Fine band oval with slight off circle on plan, setting may contain age blemish marks or slight chips and or scratches (note the description for specific listing guidance).

Good to Fine:
The ring will have flaws as listed within the descriptions and shown on listing pictures. Note ancient rings will always be listed thus (note the description for specific listing guidance).