“There have been several educated Mohammedan Negroes imported in the United States as slaves. They fell victims to the fortunes of war, and to the law of nations, as established by themselves.”

“At one period of the Moorish Domination in Spain, the rival [Moorish] dynasties of the Almoravides, and Almohades, expelled the whole mass of the Christian Mostarabes into Africa.”

“The expulsion of the Moors from Spain by the third Phillip was prompted by the same policy. We are assured on the authority of Sparvenfeld, that there existed among these Christian exiles in Africa, a catchism, grammar, and dictionary, written with Gothic characters in the Arabic language.”

“In this case, the Spanish Christians had adopted the language of the conqueror. The writer of the present manuscript, whose Christian or American name was London, was I believe, a Mandingo.”

See The African Repository and Colonial Journal, Volume 36 page 268.

The first treatise on international law (Siyar in Arabic) was the Introduction to the Law of Nations written at the end of the 8th century by Mohammed bin Hassan al-Shaybani (d. 804), an Islamic jurist of the Hanafi School, eight centuries before Hugo Grotius wrote the first European treatise on the subject. 

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