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Our Research

Check out our findings, research, studies, and reports from our scholars and researchers.

The American Nations of North and South America, Vol. 1

“In proceeding from the known to the unknown: we ascertain that a multitude of nations has come to America since 1492, as colonist or visitors. The principal was 1. Spanish: who have colonized or conquered from New Mexico to Chilli,…

The Routledge Handbook of the History of Race and the American Military

“In addition to compassion, Euro-Americans believed that Mexicans lagged behind in other areas: agriculture, industry, and commerce. These failings resulted in the land not fulfilling its potential. In their reasoning, it was clear that the fault must lay with the…

Speech of Mr. Geo. Ashmun on the Mexican War By George Ashmun

Nothing, surely, could be more clear and emphatic, unless, perhaps, the statement of the same position by the chairman of Foreign Affairs in this House. On 1he 3d of February 1845, he introduced his resolutions, and spoke in explanation of…

Jewish Communities in West Africa and the Making of the Atlantic World

“Almost thirty years earlier, a very different sequence of events had taken place. In 1460, just after the death of Henry the Navigator, Afonso V, king of Portugal, dispatched a caravel to the Petite Cote. He gave the captain, Diogo…

Empires of Medieval West Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhay

  “From ancient times to the middle of the 19th century, one of the biggest groups within Mande society was slaves. In a great medieval state like the Mali Empire, many slaves were captured during wars of expansion. Slaves were…

The Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea, Volume 2

“In 1444 and 1445 a number of ships sailed with Henry’s license to “Guinea,” and several of their commanders achieved notable successes. Thus Dinis Diaz, Nuno Tristam, and others reached Senegal. Diaz rounded Cape Verde in 1455, and in 1446…

Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire

“Timbuktu is a town inhabited by people of various races, but the greater part is made up of Whites, such as Arabs; they are subject to the king of Gao. This town is the entrepot for all goods in transit…

Historical Dictionary of Guinea

  “The origin of the name Guinea is the subject of a long-standing debate. According to a widely accepted version, the English term Guinea comes from the Portuguese Guine, a word believed to have emerged in the mid 15th century…

The Moroccan Conquest of the Songhay Empire

  “Every year [prior to 1591], on the order of the king of Timbuktu [the askiya]… two hundred quintals of gold were sent to the Barbary; the war so upset everything that once could not produce four [quintals of gold],…

The Works of Sallust

“From the plains of Catabathmos, (which are the Boundaries separating Egypt from Africa) following the Sea-coast, the first City is that of Cyene, a Greek Colony from Thera. Next, are the Two Syrtes: Between them lands Leptis; and them Altars,…

The Wars of Justinian

  “…nations settled in Libya before the Moors, who on account of having been established there from ancient times were called autochthonous. Because of this, they said that Antaios, their king, who wrestled with Herakles in Clipea, was a son…

North Africa: A History from Antiquity to the Present

    “Livy contemplated Polybius’s generous assessment as he described Hannibal’s exceptional transcultural consciousness, which the Carthaginian exploited: Hannibals’s army was composed of so many men who had nothing in common in terms of language, culture, law, weaponry, dress, physical…

Cannae: The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War

“The Mauri, or Moors, inhabited the lands to the west of the Numidians; they were of the same racial stock as the Libyans and Numidians, and Polybius evidently regarded them as simply another group of Numidians. During the Second Punic…

Journal of a tour to Malta, Greece, Asia Minor, Carthage, Algiers, Port Mahon & Spain

  “It was stated to me by several Spanish gentlemen, both here and at Malaga, as a fact, recorded in the annals of Granada, that at the final expulsion of the Moors, in 1487, a royal order was made by…

Pride of Carthage

“The army was a mixed company made up partly of the veterans stationed at New Carthage, with some Iberians from the southern tribes, completed by new Libyan recruits and a unit of Moorish mercenaries, and augmented.. Page 68” “After his…

Carthage and Tunis: Past and Present: in Two Parts

“Historians speak only very vaguely of North Africa during the period previous to the arrival of the Phonecians. Herodotus gives the names of numerous peoples or nations situated between Egypt and lake Triton; but he says nothing of the inhabitants…

A branch of the Zagawa Berbers called Beni Sefi created Kanem-Bornu

“Kanem-Borno, a former Muslim kingdom located northeast of Lake Chad, was created by a branch of the Zagawa people called Beni Sefi, with the likely collaboration of the Tubu, around the year 800. While Kanem is part of Chad today,…

Zaghawa and Sadrata Berbers ruled Kanem in 900 A.D.

These regions have since the eighth century A.D. been a stronghold of Moslem unorthodoxy–a remote area where the Zenatian Berber tribes, who embraced the doctrines of the Kharijites or “seceders” from the Khalif Ali at the battle of Siffin, have…

In 990 a.d. the empire of Ghana annexed the Saharan city of Awdaghust

“In 990 The empire of Ghana annexes the Saharan city of Awdaghust. In 1077-1078 Almoravids take over Tanger, fight the empire of Ghana, and control the trans-Saharan caravan trade; birth of Ibn Tumart, the Almohad Mahdi; Bijaia becomes the captial…

The Maga Berber family started the kingdom of Ghana

  “Ghana is a Kingdom in Africa located near what is now the Gold Coast in French West Africa. Ghana was the largest Kingdom in Africa at this time except for Egypt. The Maga Berber family started the kingdom. Most…

In 1042 the Berbers who had also converted to Islam conquered Ghana.

“The Ghanaian people were mostly animist, but Islam filtered into the Empire and some of them became Muslim. The people were all living in peace and harmony when Mudu Ture became Muslim. Others who had also converted to Islam encouraged…

Discovering the Empire of Ghana

    “Tuareg men are famous for the custom of wearing deep blue turbans and veils that cover their faces. The name for themselves is Kel Tagelmust, or “people of the veil.” The veil provides protection from the Sahara sand…

The Almoravids’s empire included ancient Ghana

    “During the period of Ghana’s greatest power in the late 10th and early 11th centuries, one of the most important commercial cities under its control was Awadaghust, about 125 miles northwest of Kumbi Saleh. Abu Ubayd al Bakri…

It was Common for Magrib Berbers to marry Soninke women

    “Scholars have attributed Ghana’s political hegemony to the ruler’s ability to unify Soninke villages and maintain a cohesive confederacy of chiefs under the command of one king. Ongoing raids launched by North African Berbers searching for gold and…

In 1076, Islamic Berbers defeated the Soninke warriors

  “The rulers of the Soninke people had many titles, one of which was “warrior king” or “Ghana.” Outsiders began calling both the King and the empire he ruled Ghana. The name stuck. The actual name for the empire of…

Ancient Ghana: Soninke tribes were ruled by the Maga, a Berber clan from Morocco

  “Ghana 700-1240 Ghana was the first truly African state. Most Africans still lived in tribal village societies, but Ghana, a center of the gold trade, opened up new possibilities. The medieval kingdom of Ghana lay farther north, inland from…

Islam in the African-American Experience

“Mervyn Hiskett describes the Islamic lands of West Africa as the area commonly referred to as “the west and central Sudan”…extending from the desert scrub in the “north” to the southern edge of savanna in the south. From west to…

Culture and Customs of Ghana

  “The religous identity of Muslims is more easily ascertained by their outward appearance and actions than that of Christians. Their dress, suh as agbada robes, represents part of the traditional dress of northerners, but is also similiar to the…

Islam and Polity in Northwestern Ghana

“The second group of Muslims: the scholars TM tell of the arrival of the second group (Arabic, firga, Hasua, iri) of Muslims in Wala. Its ancestor, Ya’muru, was also from the people of Mande. He brought Islamic teaching to Wa….

Residence in Foreign Parts does not affect the Nationality of Moorish subjects

The excerpts here given are taken from Hinckley’s American Consular Jurisdiction in the Orient,” although the arrangement is somewhat different. In the third decade of the nineteenth century, treaties began to be negotiated between Turkey and the western powers declaring…

Companies Possessed Rights either of Actual or Virtual Sovereignty

The author treats on his subject under two headings that of private international law (Part I) and that of English law (Part II.) This division lends itself admirably to a comparative study of the laws of the various countries upon…

Notes on Northern Africa, the Sahara and Soudan-William B. Hodgson

“The more ferocious and larger portion of that population consists of the aboriginal Berbers, the ancient Numidians, and Mauretanians. The Romans termed this race, genus insuperable Bello–unconquerable in war. The present memoir has special reference to this Berber or Numidian…

The New American Cyclopaedia: Volume 3

“Berberrs. In that portion of Africa known to moderns as the Barbary states, one rude wild clan stands alone, refusing to join the melee that has long ago obliterated nearly every mark of nationality among those who have been its…

Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt

  “The original inhabitants of Egypt appear to have belonged to the Hamito-Semetic group of peoples, along with the ancient Libyans and Berbers.”     “The Egyptian language had affinities with both the ancient Hamitic and Semetic languages but was…

A History of All Nations: Egypt and Western Asia

“Among the Libyans or Berbers are to be reckoned the Amazerks and Sheloks, descendants of the Mauritanians, the most ancient inhabitants of Morocco; furthermore, the Kabyles, descendants of the Numidians, and other tribes in Algeria; a few remains in Tunis…

Islam is as African as it is Middle Eastern

“Islam penetrated several parts of Africa at different times, and its presence in the continent predates Christianity. For instance, the initial spread of Islam in West Africa dates back to 800 CE when the Almoravid warriors (Berber Muslims) pushed the…

The Word Moor Found In The Metu Neter

Many people who identify with the modern American Pseudo Khemetic (Egypt) Culture have a disdain for Moorish history and Moorish identity. They often assert that Moors didn’t have a presence in Ancient Egypt and that the word Moor and its…

Abdel Kader Kane: Moorish Abolitionist (1770s-1800s)

“Abdel Kader Kane was a Moorish leader of the Futa Toro region in Northern Senegal is renowned for having resisted the slave trade.” Source: The Untold Story of African Resistance Against the Slave Trade “In the 18th century, Senegambia was bitterly…

The Phoenician Origin of Britons Scots and Anglo-Saxons by Laurence Waddell

  “Phoencian Penetration of Britian attested by “Barat” Patronym in Old Place and Ethnic Names”   “Disclosing also Phonecian Source of “Mor,” “Cumber,” “Cymr” and “Somer” and Names”   “The principal nations of the Barats are the Kurus [Syrains] and…

Portuguese Explorers took every opportunity of kidnapping Moors on Saharan Coast

    “During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the great inducement that brought Europeans to the West Coast of Africa was not merely the trade in gold, ivory, camwood, and pepper, but it was first and foremost, slaves. Liberia, however, for…

First “enslaved Africans” introduced into North America by the Dutch in 1620

“It is generally that as early as 1442, the Portuguese accepted some negroes from the Moors, as a ransom for Moorish captives. These were reduced to servitude, and their value rose so rapidly that in a few years upwards of…

American Colonization Society: The Bornu People were of Berber Origin

“At this period his territory did not extend to the northern bend of the Niger, which was occupied by Berbers. Jenne, the town which M. Dubois describes in his interesting book on “Timbuctoo the Mysterious” as still at the present…

Liberia Vol. I: Portuguese Assisted break up of Moorish dynasty of Beni-Marin

“Portugal, ever since the capture of Ceuta in 1415 (the event which had set Prince Henry of Portugal thinking on West African discovery), had been striving to conquer for herself an empire over Morocco. Spain–that is to say, Castille– was…

Dana Reynolds Marniche: “African History Time For The Children”

The following commentaries were made by Dana Reynolds Marniche. The references provide very specific details about African History that most “African Americans” are not informed on. In a post published this morning Professor Marniche stated the following and provided the…

Moors of North America

“Turf-built Cots” 277 turf-covered gamine, or cota* of the Lapps, and its architecture is visibly the … In short, these turf-built wigwams are the dwellings of the Scoto-Picts, or Egyptian Moors, whether we look at these people in their latest individual form, or as they appeared in the Hebrides last century, or at an earlier date than that when they…

The old Moorish City is full of history written in Stones, Archives, and Races

Oran. Negro Village. Grand Mufti. Co 19, 1985 conference. (Arrived in Oran, February 1985.) “The old Moorish city is full of history written in stones, archives, and races. It was alternatively the great stronghold of Moors, Turks, and Spaniards, during…

Formidable Power of the Moors Intimidated most of the Grandees of Sanchez Court

  “The luster of their virtues and the glory they acquired daily by their valor raised a generous emulation among the nobility and gentry of Spain. We observed, at the beginning of this history, that the Moors, in the eighth…

Introduction to the History of African Civilization: Precolonial Africa By C. Magbaily Fyle

“The term ‘Mande’ refers to a kingdom that existed by the twelfth century centered somewhere in present day Mali. The name ‘ Mali’ is what the Fulani used to refer to Mande. Europeans first hit upon the name ‘Mali’ as…

Mande king married several of a Berber chief’s daughters

“Modern Historians believe Ghana began to rise as a commercial power as early as A.D. 300. One reason they pick this date is that coins struck in North Africa at that time have been found in Western Sudan.” “The Soninke,…

1468 Songhai invaded Timbuktu and conquered Berbers

The Songhai Empire was the largest empire and became the last of the three major empires in West Africa. The empire existed from circa 1375 to 1591. It was one of the largest Muslim-populated empires in history. The rise of…

The phrase “Moorish American” was used in 1893 by Sir Charles Euan Smith

Charles Bean Smith (he added Euan to his surname later) was the son of Dr Euan McLaurin Smith, of Georgetown, British Guiana, and his wife Elisa Bean. In 1887 he was appointed Her Majesty’s Agent and Consul-General for the Dominions of…

1952 Hague I.C.J. Judges: “Moorish-USA 1836 treaty Apply to Criminal & Civil Cases”

“The Court then considered the extent of the consular jurisdiction of the United States in Morocco and held that the United States was entitled to exercise such jurisdiction in the French Zone in all disputes, civil or criminal, between United…

Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set

“Founded by the Sunni dynasty, Songhay was the last of the three great empires of Western Sudan. Under Sunni Ali (1464-1492), Songhay became an empire, totally eclipsing Mali, which had been in decline by the early fifteenth century. Much of…

Discovering the Songhay Empire By Laura La Bella

  “Askiya Ishaq II offered the Moroccans a tribute of one hundred thousand pieces of gold and one thousand slaves, hoping this would pacify them and encourage them to leave the Songhay Empire alone. Sultan Mulay al Mansur wanted his…

Africas Legacies Of Urbanization: Unfoldi: Unfolding Saga of a Continent

  “In the interior of western Africa around the same time, Askia the Great, of Mande ethnicity, established a new ruling dynasty in Songhai by overthrowing the preceding Lemta Tuareg dynasty associated with Sonni Ali. As Songhai expanded, a number…

Territorial Sovereignty of the Sultan of Morocco extended as far as his Religious Suzerainty

Fouad Ammoun was a Minister for Foreign Affairs in Lebanon. Born 1900, educated University of St. Joseph, Beirut, where he graduated. He was born the son of Maronite Christians and completed his law studies in Beirut, Lyon, and Monrovia. After working…

Black and Slave: The Origins and History of the Curse of Ham By David M. Goldenberg

“The claim of origins of the East goes beyond the Yoruba and Hausa. Law mentions the kings of Ghana, who claimed descent from the Caliph ‘Ali, the son in law and fourth successor of Muhammad; the founder of the first…

Historical References on the Black African Skin color of the original Berber Tribes

Dana Reynolds-Marniche provided several sources defining the original Berbers. Original Berbers here correspond with the Berbers imported into the Americas branded in slave legislation under the term “Negroes” in legislation like the Negro Law of South Caroline 1790. The distinction…

The Spanish Conquest in America: and its Relation to the History of Slavery and to the Government of Colonies: Volume I

“As to the Canary islands “Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Moors, Genoese, Normans, Portuguese, and Spaniards of every province (Aragonese, Castilians, Galicians, Biscayans, Andalusians) have all made their appearance, in these islands.* The. Carthaginians are said to have discovered them and to have reserved…

Fortunes of Africa

“Whatever kind of trade with Africa was involved, European governments sought to benefit by granting national monopolies to commercial companies venturing there. In 1618, England’s James I gave a charter of monopoly to thirty London merchants who had formed the…

Moors In Colonial Louisiana

“When the African slave trade to Lousiana began, the Company of the Indies’ control over its Senegal concession was weak and was challenged by African nations as well as by its European rivals. During the early and mid-1720s, the French…

The Jews and Moors in Spain By Joseph Krauskopf

  “The great peninsula, formed the Red Sea, by the Euphrates, by the Gulf of Persia and by the Indian Ocean, and known by the name of Arabia, is the birthplace of our creed. It was peopled soon after the…

Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History (Transatlantic Relations)

“Portuguese slavery inherited the Roman peculium, the practice by which slaves could have their own property and reap the fruits of their work. Portuguese slavery, like its Spanish counterpart, rested heavily on the Roman, Visigothic, and Muslim law and practice….

Iberian Moors migrated into West Africa 1492

Moor, 1) Muslim of North Africa. Although often assumed to be a black race, in fact, the Moors were of Berber and Arab descent, mixed with considerable Negroid and Iberian blood. The word probably derives from Mauri, L. by way…

The Moor’s Head on Crest of Arms of Lord Kirkcudbrithe (Scottish Clan MacLellan)

The author of The History of Galloway (1841) suggests Morrow or Murray is a corruption of Moor, “who from his swarthy complexion was called Black Morrow”. See The history of Galloway, from the earliest period to the present time by Mackenzie, William, of Galloway;…

AMERICA: LATEST, MOST ACCURATE DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW WORLD ORIGINALS

This book is largely a translation of Arnoldus Montanus’ work AMERICA: DE NIEUWE EN ONBEKENDE WEERELD published in Holland during the same year. Ogilby made considerable additions however from other and more reliable sources in respect to New England, New…

Moor or Saracen Heads in Heraldry

Moorish heads in heraldry developed in Germany through the direct contact of the Germanic rulers of Italy with the Saracens. See FEAR OF BLACKNESS SERIES: Guide to the Ethnic Origins of the “Infernal” and “Black Saracen” The Victoria and Albert Museum in London…

Moorish Bondage in the Early Modern Atlantic World

The perspective of other Englishmen in Spain’s Atlantic world reinforces the idea that slavery was both commonplace and not especially controversial. Over the course of the sixteenth century, several hundred Englishmen spent some time as permanent or temporary residents in…

The Barbary Company or Marocco Company 1585

The Barbary Company or Marocco Company was a trading company established by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1585 through a patent granted to the Earls of Warwick and Leicester, as well as forty others for an exclusive trade period of 12 years See Cawston, p.226  “The Barbary Company…

The English “Andalusia Company” was the “Brotherhood of St George”

Silence has been cast over the history of early English slaveholding in Spain by Gordon Connell-Smith’s study of the English Andalusia Company. It is time to recognize as a historical fact that the majority of the English merchants resident in…

Adventures and Observations on the North Coast of Africa

“In my last letter I asked the question: — Did the Moor and the Arab descend from the same parent stock? Against this hypothesis, there is an argument of no little force found in the fact that a bitter animosity…

From Al-Andalus to the Americas 13th-17th Centuries

The military dimension of the commercial companies was not limited to the control of colonies and the imposition of monopolies but was also a crucial factor in the transport and control of slave contingents. Despite the innovations introduced by Atlantic…

15th Century Moorish-English Relations

  Laamiri contends that for Rogers, the first official contact between Great Britain and The Empire of Morocco goes back to 1213 when King John of England dispatched an Embassy to sultan Mohamed Ennassir, Morocco’s fourth Almohad ruler (1199-1213), asking…

Portia & the Prince of Morocco Essay By Ungerer, Gustav

All the concerns of this essay, begin in Andalusia. Slavery was a matter, raised by Shylock at his trial, in the Merchant of Venice narrative. This topic is of cultural relevance to early modern English audiences.  The bottom lines become clear…

Black Skin – 16th Century English Literature

Ieremiah, in The Bible and Holy Scriptures, i.e. the Geneva Bible, trans. William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, Thomas Sampson (Geneva, 1560): Can the blacke More change his skin? or the leopard his spottes? (then) maieye also do good, that are accustomed to…

Shakespeare Studies, Volume 31 edited by Leeds Barroll, Susan Zimmerman

“There is ample evidence that the northwestern African Muslims, the Moors, and Mooresses of Morocco, constituted colonial targets not only for the Portuguese and the Spaniards but also for the English. One of the dire consequences of the “Portuguese and…

Moors In The New World

“In 1494, a Papal decision, followed by the Treaty of Tordesillas, had already divided Morocco into a Spanish and a Portuguese sphere of influence ( as we should say nowadays). The Spanish half was the Moorish Kingdom of Tlamsan (Tlemcen)…

Fordham Law Professor Concurs Black Status Is a Disability

Professor Kimani Paul-Emile, an associate professor of law at Fordham University and associate director of its law school’s Center on Race, Law & Justice, published a 72-page report titled “Blackness is a Disability”.  Professor Emile bottom line is being black in America…

Mombasa means City of the Moors

“The “City of Moors” in Kenya is also called the Old Town of Mombasa is the second largest city of Kenya.” See 129 best Kenya images on Pinterest | Mombasa Kenya, East Africa. “When the King of Portugal discovered this land, the…

Pete the Moor and European Black Face Traditions

In the United States of America, Pete has largely been removed from the narratives in Europe where he is basically Santa Clause (Sinterklaas) assistant and enforcer. While many suggest that Blackface is racist and seek for non-Black Europeans or so-called Whites to end the…

The Human Species By Armand de Quatrefages

“Amongst the Whites there are entire populations, whose skin is as black as that of the darkest Negro. I shall only quote the Bishareen and other tribes inhabiting the African coasts of the Red Sea, the black Moors of Senegal,…

Are Moors Indigenous To South Carolina?

“The Yamasee or Jamassi, was one of a small number of isolated tribes, dark complexion found widely scattered among the inhabitants of North and South America. Supposed to have been immigrants from Africa prior to the European discovery of America…

“Deeper Roots” by Abdullah Hakim Quick

Not much is mentioned about the facts surrounding the Moorish presence in the Americas and the Caribbean until the 19th century, despite the fact that there has been a Moorish presence in this region for over one thousand years. Dr….

England & the Crusades, 1095-1588

“Men from London were in the fleet that sailed from Dartmouth in May 1189 and took Silves from the Moors in September. A year later another shipload of at least eighty Londoners embarked for Jerusalem, their eventful voyage to Spain…

Excerpts From Black History and Black Identity: A Call for a New Historiography

Precursor Black historians made he assumption that the name Africa was given to a large land mass by the millennial black people who lived there, and it was further assumed by them that these people called themselves Africans. First and…

Malcolm X Aka El Hajj Malik Shabazz Discussion On Moorish Civilizations

Ancient Black civilizations Now then, once you see that the condition that we’re in is directly related to our lack of knowledge concerning the history of the Black man, only then can you realize the importance of knowing something about…

Turks, Moors, and Englishmen in the Age of Discovery

For Foss, the three-year ordeal of captivity had no religious relevance. This indifference to religion did not, however, prevent Foss from advancing a strong anti-Muslim invective. Just as the Indian captivity account served to foment anti-Indian hatred, Foss used his…

Islam in Britain, 1558-1685

The “Turks ad Moors” of North Africa and the rest of the Ottoman dominions were spreading alarm in England, Wales and elsewhere in the British Isles, especially among fisherman, sailors, traders ad the Levant Company’s representatives in Parliament. From Minehead…

Government Cabinets Were Introduced To Europe By The Moors In Cordoba, Spain

Ministerial Cabinets As Most Governments Have Today Were Introduced By the Moors in Cordoba. See The Hidden History of The Islamic Origins of Freemasonry. The various municipal administration posts were filled through the concept of merit and commitment. Loyalty was the…

The Story Of The Moors In Spain: Backwards Ones Are Called Negroes [Blacks]

The Story of the Moors in Spain is a history of the Moorish Empire in Andalusia, chronicling the rise and fall of the Islamic empire, and with it the stymie of a “civilized and enlightened State.” Author Stanley Lane-Poole catalogues…

Dictionary Defines The Hebrew Term “Cushite” As “Moor” in English

A page from Elia Levita’s 16th century Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary contains a list of nations, including the word “כושי” Cushite or Cushi, translated to Latin as “Aethiops” and into German as “Mor”.  [Translated into Modern English as Moor].  The Egyptian priest Manetho (c….

Understanding Of The Concept Of Treaty In Al-Islam By Anisa Abd El Fattah

Before anyone can look into the various meanings of Al-Hudaybiah treaty, or any Muslim treaty hoping perhaps  to ascertain the meaning of certain approaches or tactics used to arrive at agreements, or to enforce agreements, etc. one must understand some…

Washington Irving Re-framed The Representative Tradition Of The Moors

Irving helped to create the modern idea of Christmas. Charles Dickens often gets the credit for inventing the modern Christmas, with goodwill to everyone, the resurrection of old and formerly outdated customs, and the big Christmas feast. It’s certainly true…

West African Moors Beat Columbus By at Least 168 Years

In 1969, Thor Heyerdahl, a Norwegian adventurer crossed the Atlantic ocean from the North African port of Safi, arriving in Barbados, West Indies. His craft was made by local Africans of indigenous papyrus. For his journey he relied on the southbound…

Why Status Correction?

Capitis Diminutio Maxima is the definitive legal term for the phrase “stripped of Name and Heritage” found in Federal and State apologies for Slavery.  Capitis deminutio or capitis diminutio, (lit. “decrease of head”) is a term used in Roman law, referring to the extinguishing,…

Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art, Volume 106

“This is fortified by a religious faith of intense force, amounting often to primitive intolerance. But it should be not be impossible to convince the Moors that neither their independence nor their religion is threatened, and that it will be…

Moorish Europe By Aylmer Von Fleischer Tells Us Dwellers of Arabia Were Black

“In 711 A.D., the Black Moors and others sailed across the straits of Gibraltar and invaded Europe. They stayed in Iberia for centuries. Although they could be brutal at times, their efforts helped lift Europe out of the ‘Dark Ages’…

Mulay Ismail (Reg. 1672-1727) Defended & Supported Jewish Causes In Morocco

“Britons began their seaborne trade in the Mediterranean basin and the east Atlantic during the reign of Queen Elizabeth and repeatedly found themselves, merchants and sailors alike, clashing with Turks and Moors. At the end of the sixteenth century, numerous…

The Difference Between Moor Rights In American Law And The Rights of U.S. Blacks

 WHEREAS, The Supreme Court of the United States has solemnly declared its opinion that the congressional enactment known as the civil rights law, of February 27, 1875, is not in accordance with the United States Constitution, and consequently inoperative as…

The Moors Part I A Lecture Hosted By Afroasiatics Blogspot Owner‎

The lecture is an exploration of the African and Afroasiatic heritage of the Moors and their lost heritage in North Africa and Spain. For More Information Click Here  (This is a free event. Lecture powerpoint presentation). To the Left is a photoof…

“Moor” originally meant “Westerner” not “Black”, “Negro” or “Colored”

  The ancient Maures [Moors] were indeed had skin complexions black as coal or brown as wood or tree bark complexion(s) and color(s), however, the term itself does not mean Black or Negro, as english dictionaries would give the historically…

El Hajj Malik Shabazz Discussion On Who The Moors Are

In the last few chapters of El Hajj Malik Shabazz’s autobiography he made a statement about the Moorish Empire. Elijah Muhammad also made a statement about the Moors in the Theology of time. Ancient Civilizations  “Now then, once you see…

The Moorish Essence of Pensacola By Jeremie Samuel

Local writer Jeremie Samuel points out Moorish architecture in Pensacola, Florida…“Discover hidden treasures of culture in Pensacola through the Moorish Essence of America’s first port city.” The Moorish Essence of Pensacola indulges in the rich history of exploration and cultural…

Constitution Of Medina Was The First Describing A Secular & Pluralistic Society, Not The Magna Carta!

The constitution of Medina and not the Magna Carta was the first ever constitution describing a pluralistic society. The Charter of Medina (Arabic: صحيفة المدينة‎‎, Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah; or: ميثاق المدينة, Mīthāq al-Madīnah), also known as the Constitution of Medina (دستور…

The African Caliphate: The Life, Works, and Teaching of Shaykh Usman Dan Fodio (1754 – 1817)

“Prior to the spread of Islam into Hausaland, the inhabitants toiled under a variety of pagan beliefs. Though varying in detail from one community to another, these pagan beliefs usually revolved around a high distant god (ubangiji), who was not…

Africa And The Discovery Of America

“Each group on the shores of Senegal has its griots, the Moors as well as the Peuls, the Mandingos as well as the Tukolors; but, as one proceeds southward, this institution is seen to change, the griot by degrees becoming…

The International Law of Discovery, Indigenous Peoples

  The Doctrine of Discovery is one of the earliest examples of classical international law—that is, the accepted legal norms and principles that control conduct between different states. The Doctrine was developed to regulate European countries’ actions and conflicts over…

England And The Discovery Of America, 1481-1620

The narrative is familiar; the Cabot voyages, the grace of Shadowy ventures in Henry VIII’s reign, and of course the Elizabethan experiments. There are chapters “Sailor and the Sea in the Elizabethan England” and “England and the St. Lawrence, 1577-1502,”…

Legal Foundation of Sovereignty & Possession In The English New World

“The brothers Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus had offered their westward services to Henry VII in 1491-92 in the hopes of receiving patronage,  although there is no evidence that they recieved English royal favour before approaching the rulers of Castile. Perhaps…

English Possessions In America Were Claimed By Anglo-Christian Right Of Discovery

The English possessions in America were not claimed by right of conquest, but by right of discovery. According to the principles of international law, as then understood by the civilized powers of Europe, the Indian tribes in the new world…

Holy See Statement As To The Doctrine Of Discovery

Webster’s New International Dictionary of the English Language, published in 1923, states, under “Family of Nations”: “—f. of nations. Internat. Law, an aggregate of states, which, as a result of their antecedents, have inherited a common civilization, and are at…

George Washington And The Moor With the Horse

To the left is a French engraving, circa 1780, showing  General Washington holding the Declaration of Independence. The Moor with the horse, though not identified, is thought to represent William Lee. William “Billy” Lee (1750–1828), also known as Will Lee, was George Washington’s personal servant and…

El Glaoui Pasha of Marrakesh The Original Black Panther

Influence for the “Black Panther” concept derives from the Moor, Thami El Glaoui also known as Hassan El Glaoui, was the son of the Pasha of Marrakech, Hadj Thami El Glaoui – also known as the Black Panther – was…

U.S. Founding Fathers Included Islam Thomas Jefferson Didn’t Just Own A Quran

At a time when most Americans were uninformed, misinformed, or simply afraid of Islam, Thomas Jefferson imagined Muslims as future citizens of his new nation. His engagement with the faith began with the purchase of a Qur’an eleven years before he…

The Discovery of America Was An Outgrowth Of Conquering The Moors in Spain

This is a fascinating book, and not too long to read either. I find it amazingly interesting because I have spoken to my fellow Moors plenty of times about the title of this book, and to actually find a book…

“Let Us Be Moors” Islam, Race And “Connected Histories” By Hishaam Aidi

“Seamos moros!”wrote the Cuban poet and nationalist José Martí in 1893, in support of the Berber uprising against Spanish rule in northern Morocco. “Let us be Moors…the revolt in the Rif…is not an isolated incident, but an outbreak of the change and…

From the Moors of The Soudan Have Descended Most African Americans

  From the Negroes proper of the Sudan have descended most American Negroes See U.S. Immigration Commission Dictionary of races or peoples. The name Sudan is probably a confusing term, especially to modern learners of history as it is a recent name given to…

The Mohammedan Africans Remain Of The Old Stock Of Slave Imports

The Moral and Religious Condition of the Slave Negro Population. Ignorance of the doctrines and duties of Christianity is prevalent among the Negroes. Their notions of the Supreme Being; of the character and offices of Christ and of the Holy…

16th Century AD Medieval Iberian Moriscos Silver Carnealian Ring

This is a beautiful complete original example of a silver Moriscos (Moorish), late Medieval ring from Iberia – modern day Spain and Portugal. The ring is dated Circa: 15th – 16th Century. The band is silver and convex in section which…

Columbus Plan: Sail West to Set up Trading Post to Finance Crusade Against Moors !

Less well known was a voyage by Columbus to the Gold Coast in West Africa in 1481, sponsored by King John II of Portugal. In contrast to the Eurocentric myth of disorder and barbarism prevalent in Africa, during this voyage…

The First Book of the Introduction of Knowledge

Andrew Borde’s The First Book of the Introduction of Knowledge (1547) describes the customs and manners of various nations, from the English and their neighbors to the Moors, the Turks, the Egyptians, and the Jews. Borde was a doctor and the author…

Ezaldeen, Muhammad a.k.a. Lomax Bey Founder Of The Addeynu Allahe Universal Arabic Association

Ezaldeen, Muhammad Born: 1886 Died: 1957 Occupation: founder of the Addeynu Allahe Universal Arabic Association From: Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History. Detroit was directed by the temple’s first leader, James Lomax who formed what may have been called the “Mohammedan Church…

Abdul Hamid Suleiman And The Origins Of The Moorish Science Temple

In 1923, a story coming out of New Jersey was picked up by the well-known national literary magazine The Smart Set. A man, claiming to have religious authority derived from his connection to Mecca, had begun a movement for spreading Mohammedanism…

Before the Fez Ali & the Canaanite Temple in Newark, New Jersey

Most accounts of Ali’s religious genesis began with his founding of the Canaanite Temple in 1913 Newark, New Jersey without actually probing its veracity and accuracy. Interestingly, Ali himself never utilized the term “Canaanite Temple” in his literature. At best,…

Diplomatic Relations of the United States with the Barbary Coast, 1790-1801

In the meantime Adams and Jefferson were attempting to conclude a treaty with Tripoli. The initiative, relative to this, had been taken by one Abdurrahman, a Tripolitan ambassador in London. To an acquaintance he had expressed surprise that Adams had…

Islam Has More To Offer To The Children Of Ham

        See The Future of Islam – Wilfred Scawen Blunt      

Hamites are Classed as under “White” In the USA

In its decision in the case of U.S. v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923), the Supreme Court deemed Asian Indians ineligible for citizenship because U.S. law allowed only free whites to become naturalized citizens. The court conceded that Indians were “Caucasians” and that anthropologists…

IS D.C. Universe Moor Character A Hero Or Villain?

Is the Moor a Hero or Villain? It appears that he is Both. It seems he is a Villain to the Justice League but a Hero in his own homeland North Africa, I suppose that position would work the same…

Britain And Barbary 1589 -1689 Nabil Matar

“This important and fascinating study of early modern England’s relationship to North Africa by the foremost expert on the topic is magisterial in its reach and groundbreaking in the implications it holds for seventeenth-century English culture and political history.”–Mihoko Suzuki,…

Moorish Origin Of The Red, Black And Green Pan Afro-American Liberation Flag

As  you view this Blog and the Source to the Black Power Flag aka RBG Flag, notice it was piggy backed from the BRG Flags of the Mahdi of the  eastern Sudan, Africa. Yes, sir I say “eastern” because the…

They Strove To Convert Moors But Were Prevented

In this edition Malta is conflated with the Inquisition as a place of “Great Tryals,” “Cruel Sufferings,” and “Confinement.” The reference to St. Pal is noticeable absent from this title, which not only confirms Malta as a malign locale in…

Evelyn Carefully Distinguished The Moorish From The Turkish Flow

Evelyn’s administration for the richness of the visitor’s dress betrays a well-established fascination with the exoticism of the East, presenting an opportunity for spectacle and display that was quickly seized upon by Restoration dramatist. Evelyn carefully distinguishes the Moroccan from…

Islam and English Law

It remains curious in this regard that little effort is made to examine the attempts medieval Latin-Speaking Christians made to assert their Visigothic roots vis-a-vis Christian communities embracing Arab culture and language. What continuities may be present here? The second and…

Islam And The English Enlightenment, 1670–1840 By Humberto Garcia

A dedicated collector of manuscripts on the Islamic sciences, theology, poetry, music, history and literature, Shairani used Stubbe’s manuscript as a political tool for bolstering Muslim nationalist sentiments, in the India Punjab and Abroad, and opposing the anti Islamic Orientalism…

Treaties in Islam By Abu Tariq

The following is a useful article written by a brother some time ago. It is especially relavent now due to the ongoing peace process in order to legitimise the illegal Israeli state. In 1979, the Egyptian regime signed a peace treaty with…

Moorish Trade Agreements With The English Hurt Spanish Bread

  England entered in a trading relationship with Morocco detrimental to Spain, selling armour, ammunition, timber, metal in exchange for Moroccan sugar, in spite of a Papal ban, Speaking of the Moor: From Alcazar to Othello By Emily Carroll Bartels  …

The Word Moor Is Older Than Negro

In the Century dictionary and cyclopedia By Benjamin Eli Smith  the terms Moor and Negro are found.  Moor is defined on Page 3852 Moor, n. [Earl mod. E. also Moore, More; <ME. More, Moore, Moore = D. Moor = , MLG. Mor (ef. equiv. MLG,…

First Three English Books On America: 1511-1555 A.D

In  The First Three English Books On America we find continuous commentary on the Moors spelled in  the book as Moores or blacke Moores. “The three Books are all the oceanic voyages performed by the English in the reign of Henry…

Ancient Times: Morocco was Mauritania Tingitana

  In Modern History Or the Present State of All Nations, Volume 3 By Tho…: This empire, now called Morocco from a city of that name (on the north part of it at least) was the Mauritania Tingitana of the Romans, and…

Islam in the Mind of American Courts: 1800 to 1960 By Marie A. Failinger

This paper produced by Marie A. Failinger provides excellent references and details. Inside the paper is found the following:  Beyond these early explorers and the occasional free Muslim mentioned in early histories, recent historians of Muslim America suggest that the…

Ancient Kush: Arabia And Her Ancient Races

Dr. Wesley Muhammad broke down in detail with supporting references that the arabic word abyad (meaning “white”) actually applies to “black” or “dark skin pigment” when used by Arabs (in Classical Arabic) when describing their own skin complexion. Furthermore, Dr….

Moor Also Applied To Natives of Hispaniola [Haiti and Dominican Republic]

In 1872 two men began work on a lexicon of words of Asian origin used by the British in India. Since its publication the 1,000-page dictionary has never been out of print and a new edition is due out next…

Moor vs. Negro vs. Afro-American vs. Black

“The English word “Negro” is a derivative of the Spanish and Portuguese word negro, which means black. The Portuguese and Spanish, who were pioneers in the African Slave Trade, used this adjective to designate the African men and women whom…

English Institutions And The American Moor

James Alton James (17 September 1864, Jefferson, Wisconsin – 12 February 1962, Evanston, Illinois) was a United States educator and historian. He spent two years at the Platteville Normal School, and then, after teaching high school two years to pay for the University, entered the University of Wisconsin, where…

“Moors” Of West Africa And The Beginnings Of The Portuguese Slave Trade

While there is no doubt that the idea of natural slavery ultimately came to dominate this interpretative matrix the very earlier European expeditions to the West African coast—that is those of the Portuguese in the 1430’s and 1440s unfolded with…

Blackamoor Was Initially Used Without ‘Depreciatory Force’

In  Race, Colour and the Processes of Racialization: New Perspectives….we find the following: “Another instance of something becoming retrospectively black begins in antiquity with the Greek word nekromanteia which means divination by the dead. However, by the thirteenth century it was…

U.S. House Votes To Ban Negro But Omits “Black”

WASHINGTON — Politicians have a habit of burying important information. There are bills with titles that say nothing about what they will actually do, and as comedian Jon Stewart noted in his swan song on “The Daily Show,” politicians have…

The Terms “Black” And “Negro” In U.S. Law Are Equal To “Slave” and “Criminal”

  Before Obama, left office he implemented a policy form of reparations by banning the use of the terms “negro” and “oriental”. “The term “Negro” was used widely in the US until the civil rights era of the 1950s and…

Berbers and Others: Beyond Tribe and Nation in the Maghrib By Katherine E. Hoffman, Susan Gilson Miller

Berbers and Others offers fresh perspectives on new forms of social and political activism in today’s Maghrib. In recent years, the Amazigh (Berber) movement has become a focus of widespread political, social, and cultural attention in North Africa, Europe, and…

The Law Of Freedom And Bondage In The United States

Discussion on Moors can be found on pages 162, 234, 341 in The Law of Freedom and Bondage in the United States, Volume 1  By J… inside we find: “Whatever foundations there may have been in natural reason for slavery, in the…

Living with Colonialism: Nationalism and Culture in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

“In the early-twentieth century Northern Sudan, use of the term “Black” described more an idea than a color. In short, both “Black” and “Sudanese” were a comment on low social status made by those who claimed a higher status. These…

Land of Kush: Geographical Origin Of The “Moors”

In German the word “Mohr” [Moor] is associated with people perceived to be sub-Saharan African, the historical usage aims contrast to people from North-West African regions, especially from East Africa( Ethiopia , Eritrea , Ethiopia , Aksum , Nubia )…

British Academics Angry At GCSE Course That Says Moors Arrived In Britain Before Englishmen

Painting depicts how the ‘Ivory Bangle Lady’ may have looked Archaeologists have revealed the remains of what they say was a “high status” woman of Moorish  origin who lived in York during Roman times. The fascinating study was carried out by…

Moors in Tudor England, their Presence, Status and Origins

Blackamoores: Africans in Tudor England, their Presence, Status and Origins written by Onyeka, is a 2013 book about the African population present in England during the Tudor period. The book was officially launched at the House of Commons on 6 November 2013. Stella Creasy MP, Chi Onwurah…

Moors Have Always Asserted Their Rights As A Distinct Nationality

According to David Mac Ritchie ” Mr. Skene does not regard Fordun’s description as wholly accurate; and Fordun, be it remembered, did not write until two hundred years after this event. Since the north eastern corner of this twelfth century “Moors’ country” has…

Kush: Geographical Origin Of The “Moors”

In German the word “Mohr” [Moor] is associated with people perceived to be sub-Saharan African, the historical usage aims contrast to people from North-West African regions, especially from East Africa( Ethiopia , Eritrea , Ethiopia , Aksum , Nubia )…

Moors In European Cultural History: Luther calls Tirhakah “King of the Moors” or “the Moor King”.

 Serah, the Moor and Tirhakah king of Moors [Kush] Actor Will Smith is developing a film entitled The Last Pharaoh, which he plans to produce and star as Taharqa. Carl Franklin contributed to the script.[18] Randall Wallace was hired to rewrite in September 2008.[19] Taharqa was described by…

Blacks Must Contend For Recognition As Moors

Most of the Black Power heads often like to cite this book in effort to implement Islamaphobia and to use it as a reference to point to blame their own Ancestors for their modern situation in the United States. See Status Correction…