The ancient Maures [Moors] were indeed had skin complexions black as coal or brown as wood or tree bark complexion(s) and color(s), however, the term itself does not mean Black or Negro, as english dictionaries would give the historically untrained mind the delusion of or as your so-called scholars and teachers may have taught you. “See Strabo’s Geographies, Strabo corroborates the fact that Moors named themselves by saying Mauri was a name used by the natives of Mauritania as well as the Romans. (Strabo Geographies xvii 3.2) So one has no reason to believe that the people who called themselves Mauri assumed there native name from foreigners. Mauri was a name used by the natives of Mauritania not just the Romans.
Example: The Mauri possess bodies black as night, while the skins of the Gauls are white” (citing Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, 6th c. AD.) The Roman dramatist Platus (254-184 B.C.) maintained that the Latin word Maurus was a synonym for Niger. In contrasting the Moors of the sixth century with another racial group in North Africa, Procopius (circa 550 A.D.) wrote that they were “not black skinned like the Moors.” Isidore, a Catholic scholar and the Archbishop of Seville (587 -636 A.D.) wrote that the word Maurus meant black.
“The earliest European account of the Moorish invasion of Spain, the Chronicle of 754, refers to the Visigothic capitulation, the so-called “loss of Spain” (perdida de España) at the hands of the “Arabs and Moors sent by Musa,” or Musa Ibn Nusayr, the Muslim governor of North Africa. In the Estoria de Espanna (History of Spain), the first vernacular chronicle composed in Spain, we find a characteristic portrayal: “All the Moorish soldiers were dressed with silk and black wool that had been forcibly acquired … their black faces were like pitch and the most handsome of them was as black as a cooking pan.” The extensive European historiography on the Crusades is replete with similar portrayals. French, Italian, and English histories of the medieval Moors—and later the Turks—repeat these stereotypes and reinforce this negative image.”
It appears that writers have replaced the ancient meaning of the term “Moor” with the complexion or skin color description as to the people in their efforts to implement “white supremacy” into literature which requires enforcement of the duty to “Blacken” “White-out” or “strip” dark skin people of their Moorish heritage.
I get the feeling that the purpose is to employ feelings of comfortability among descendants of enslaved Moors now identifying under the badges of Slavery branded upon “enslaved Moors” starting around 1441 A.D. such as Negro and Black, when these two terms that are found within slave records and revisionist history books written in effort to create Black Pride in those learning about the history, heritage and culture of the Moors, who claim it as Black History, it was Black authors who accept the badges of slavery as a suitable social or political i.e. racial Identity following behind white supremacist authors whose very agenda is the same. These same Black authors chose to ignore the use of the “Black Caste/Badge of Slavery” as only being employed in Slave Records and accepted it as an identifier for various indigenous and ancient nations, kingdoms and tribes. Much reliance is based on historical references identifying the skin complexion of several ancient groups including the Moors. However, the truth can be colored over but it cannot be removed. The reason you see “Negro” and “Black” in dictionaries defining Moor is that the authors of the dictionaries were on board with branding Moors as Negro and Black.“The history of the Greek alphabet starts with the adoption of Phoenician letter forms and continues to the present day. The Greek alphabet postdates Linear B, the syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, by several centuries. This article concentrates on the early period, before the codification of the now-standard Greek alphabet.”
“The Phoenician alphabet was strictly speaking one that was consistently explicit only about consonants, though even by the 9th century BC it had developed matres lectionis to indicate some, mostly final, vowels. This arrangement is much less suitable for Greek than for Semitic languages, and these matres lectionis, as well as several Phoenician letters which represented consonants not present in Greek, were adapted according to the acrophonic principle to represent Greek vowels consistently, if not unambiguously.”
“The Greek alphabet was developed by a Greek with first-hand experience of contemporary Phoenician script. Almost as quickly as it was established in the Greek mainland, it was rapidly re-exported, eastwards to Phrygia, where a similar script was devised. It was also exported westwards with Euboean or West Greek traders, where the Etruscans adapted the Greek alphabet to their own language, which eventually led to the Latin alphabet.”
Source: History of the Greek alphabetThe etymology of the word “Moor” can be traced to the Phoenician term “Mahurin” meaning “Westerners”. The Semitic etymon “Mahourím,” referred to “People of the West,” and the terms “Maghreb” meant “The West” or “the place where the sun sets;” and “Greater Maghreb” referred to “Further West;” while “Moghrab el Aksa,” meant “the extreme west.” Early Phoenician titles such as: “Muru,” “Mer,” or “Marutu,” can be translated as meaning “Of the Western Sea (or Sea of the Setting Sun).” The “Akkadian Amurru” occur as a geographical term meaning literally “the West.” In Sumerian the “Amorites” were known as the “Martu” or the Tidnum, in Akkadian by the name of “Amurru”, and in Egypt as “Amar”, all of which mean ‘westerners‘ or ‘those of the west‘. The Hebrew terms “Maarab,” “Mareb,” “Marrabah” and “Mah-ar-awb” also mean “West“. The Hebrew “Mahur” also means “Westerner.”
The first source I present that Moor means Westerner is Philip Khuri Hitti (فيليب خوري حتي in Arabic), (Shimlan 1886 – Princeton 1978) was a Lebanese American scholar and authority on Arab and Middle Eastern history, Islam, and Semitic languages. He almost single-handedly created the discipline of Arabic Studies in the United States. In his work History of the Arabs first published in 1937, contended that the term “Moor” has a geographic designation meaning Western.
Hitti spent 10 years writing this book he provided that “The Romans called Western Africa “Mauretania” and its inhabitants Mauri (presumably of Phoenician origin meaning ‘Western’) whence [the] Spanish Moor [and the] English Moor. The Berbers, therefore, were the Moors proper, but the term was conventionally applied to all Moslems of Spain and North-western Africa.”
I’ve just read your excellent article “MOOR MEANS WESTERNER NOT “BLACK, NEGRO OR COLORED”. A small point, it’s a pity it is illustrated with a picture of an Assyrian Geni which has nothing at all to do with the Amorites or Phoenicians. The Assyrian and Babylonian word for ancient Syria and the Mediterranean coast was Amuru (I’m an ex-Assyriologist) and I think your description of it’s misuse good. However, the picture is not of a Phoenician or an Amorite, but definitely originates from an Assyrian relief, i.e., in the East. The Assyrians lived in Iraq near modern day Mosul and they certainly originated the word. Just trying to be helpful. If you research Assyrian reliefs you’ll see where I’m coming from. Thanks. – John Bruce.
The origins of the term is not elusive like most claim and do not go back to “death” as the term preceede’s existence of the Roman diety “Mors.”‘ Many of these frivolous notions that people have come up with today on Youtube, facebook, instagram, etc. The arrogance within the ignorance is remarkable, among some of these bogus scholars and educators, you even have people on the Hidden Colors video purporting to be educators telling people that “Moors” means “Black“, this is because they do not deal with technicalities, the fact that english dictionaries from the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th and early 19th century use “Black” and “Negro” and sometimes Black man merely demonstrates who it applied to versus specifically meaning that Moor means Black or Negro, what it shows is that the writers of the English Dictionaries were on board with the Stripping of Name and Heritage Scheme (Capitis dimunitio), they branded Moors as Negroes and Blacks, thus it was significant to define Moor as Negro and Black in their dictionaries so the English descendants would not forget who the term “Moor” applies too i.e. the People now identified as “Negros“, “Blacks” and “African Americans“.
The Second Source provides that its derivation from the Semitic etymon Mahourím, “People of the West,” those who say that source is questionable are usually unaware as to the Phoenician/Canaanite origin to the term Roman “Maure”, and the Greek “Mavros” which gave birth to the Romance languages (German, English, French, Spanish, etc), the Arabic al-Maris extremely rare and is alleged to not occur in Andalusi Arabic sources which I think is irrelevant because the Moors (Maures) were a Nation composed of many tribes before the Andalusian Era in general. Mauroi is late Greek and may have been derived from the Latin ethnic name Mauri. Following the destruction of Carthage in 146 B.C.E., the term mauri was used to indicate the tribes inhabiting the Roman provinces established in Ancient Mauretania, corresponding to modern-day western Algeria and northeastern Morocco.
In the Latin Middle Ages, Mauri referred to a mixture of Berbers and Arabs inhabiting the coastal regions of Northwest Africa. In Spain, Portugal, and Italy, Mauri became Moros (Maures in French). More commonly, however, it was a racial designation for dark-skinned or black skin peoples, as in its English usage, which is seen as early as the fourteenth century. The source article explained the term “Moor” as background to Menocal’s Ornament of the World and Maalouf’s Leo Africanus. See the article by David Assouline reprinted from The Oxford Encyclopedia …
Now as to my Third Source demonstrating the relationship between “Moor” and “Westerner”. The Normans re-took Sicily in 1061, establishes trading relationships with northern Africa, and employed Africans in their armies. Fredrick II, for example, no only used such warriors but placed them in his bodyguard. These African guards, together with African musicians and animal keepers, as well as the Emperor’s African personal attendants, formed part of the imperial processions. An African Johannes Morus, was appointed vizier of the Kingdom of Sicily. (The etymology of the word Moor is uncertain, it can be traced to the Phoenician term “Mahurin” meaning “Westerners”; See Encyclopedia of the World’s Minorities By Carl Skutsch The fact that the West is called the Maghrib should also ring a bell.
Fourth Source: “The Mediterranean and south-western European ports. They were the foremost among the ancient merchants. They inhabited only a narrow strip of the northern coastline of Palestine. The area was originally settled by Amorites (meaning “Westerners”), who were not necessarily Hebrews, but were a kindred people. They were Semitic, or Shemitic people, that is, they claimed descent from Shem. Although they later became very mixed with the descendants of Ham, such as the Canaanites, they had a high proportion of fair skinned, fair-haired Shemitic peoples, from whom Abraham and his family came. When Israel later settled in the Promised Land, many Israelite’s, mostly from the tribes of Dan and Zebulun, joined with them in their seafaring enterprises. In this way the forerunners of the later Israelitish migrations reached the British Isles, and they had settlements in Spain and Portugal. The Phoenicians had included Canaanites and Jebusites, as well as Israelites, but the rulers of the Phoenician and Carthaginian nations were of the Semitic stock, as we may guess from the story of Hiram, King of Tyre, in Phoenicia. He was of great assistance to King Solomon of Israel in his temple building operations of the Temple. If Hiram had not been of the original Amoritic or Shemitic stock, it is unlikely that he would have been so friendly and helpful to a king of Israel.”
Sixth Source: Stanley Lane Poole “Moors in Spain” Page 20 also states in footnotes the term “Moor” comes from a “Hebrew” word “Mahuran”. Which is close in spelling and sound as the “Phoenician” source pointed out by Phillip Khuri Hitti, above. According to Dana Reynolds-Marniche “the word Amurru is supposed to the source of the semetic-Assyrian word “Western” because the Amorites lived in the mountains West of them.
Dana Reynolds-Marniche provided the following reference also which raises a significance to “Westerner” or “West”. “THE MOGHRABIN OR MOGHRABIN XII: From the word “Moghrabi” the singular of Mogharba or Mograbin, through the Latin Maurus, has arisen the anglicized “Moor,” and from “Moghrab el Aksa,” “the extreme west,” the name “Morocco.” It must not, however, be assumed that all the MOGHARBA in Egypt or the Sudan came from Morocco; it is unlikely that any of them, a certain number of individuals of the merchant class excepted, did so.”
Seventh Source: Using Greek and Roman sources Frank M. Snowden has pointed out that Mauri (a northwest African people whose color received frequent notice) were described as nigri (black) and adusti (scorched). With the sudden eruption of the Arabs, during the middle of the seventh century, Mauri disappears for a time from the historical records. It reemerges, however, in medieval literature. For example, in a Middle English romance called Kyng Alisaunder (ca. 1175), the conqueror Darius has among his troops a contingent of soldiers led by Duke Mauryn. Regarding Mauryn, J.B. Friedman writes that “ … it sounds rather like Moor in this context.” 4 As late as 1 398 we find the following reference to the Moors: “Also the nacyn [nation] of Maurys [Moors] they’re blacke colour comyth of the inner partes.” 5 There are Irish records of a Viking raid on Spain and North Africa in 862. During the raid, a number of Blacks were captured and some carried to Dublin. In Ireland, they were known as “blue men” (Irish, fir gorma\ Old Norse, blamenn). The entry is under the title “Three Fragments Copied from Ancient Sources,” and sheds further light on the ethnicity of the Moors. The entry reads: After that, the Scandinavians went through the country, and ravaged it; and they burned the whole land, and they brought a great host of [the Moors] in captivity with them to Ireland. These are the ‘blue men’ (firgorma ); because the Moors are the same as negroes; Mauretania is the same as negro-land. 6 See “Golden Age of the Moor” book under the title ” The Moor in Africa and Europe” by Ivan Van Sertima.
Eighth Source: According to E.J. Brill’s First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 5, edited by M. Th. Houtsma, we find the following origin of the term Moor: “The word, presumably of Phoenician origin, corresponds to the ancient local name of the natives of Barbary reproduced by the Romans as Μαῦρο, Mauri and by the Greeks as Maurusii (Strabo vii, 825).” The First Encyclopedia of Islam continues: “The land of the Moors is MAURITANIA, or Mauretania. This name which has been derived either from a Phoenician word Mauharim “the Westerns” or with more probability a name of a tribe living before the Christian era in North Africa……At a later date, by extending the application, Europeans have given the general name of Moors to the Arabo-Berber peoples of Mediterranean and Saharan Africa. Then gradually they came to distinguish out of this mass the groups with which they came into frequently more contact (Tripolitans, Tunisians, Algerians, Moroccans), so that the name Moors came to be limited to people of Spanish (Muslim), Jewish or Turkish origin of North Africa and particularly to the nomads of the Sahara.” In Sumerian they [Amorites] were known as the Martu or the Tidnum (in the Ur III Period), in Akkadian by the name of “Amurru”, and in Egypt as “Amar”, all of which mean ‘westerners‘ or ‘those of the west‘, as does the Hebrew name “Amorite”. See Ancient History Encyclopedia
Ninth Source: In Sumero-Akkadian and Eblaite texts from the period from 2400 to 1600 B.C.E., Sumerian MAR.TU, Eblaite Martu(m), and “Akkadian Amurru” occur as a geographical term meaning literally “the West.” The area extended westward from the Euphrates River as far as the Mediterranean Sea. It specifically embraced the great Syrian desert, the Orontes River valley, and the Amanus Mountains. In later Assyrian texts, “Amurru” was an established name for Syria-Palestine. See Encyclopedia Judaica: Amorites
Tenth Source: The Hebrew terms “maarab, mareb, marrabah and mah-ar-awb” also mean “West“. See Strong’s Concordance.
I suspect those terms are the origin of “Arab”. The Cushites had a capital in modern-day Yemen called Ma’rib during the Sabaen era. A page from Elia Levita’s 16th century Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary contains a list of nations, including the word “כושי” Cushite or Cushi, translated to Latin as “Aethiops” and into German as “Mor”. [Translated into Modern English as Moor]. See Dictionary Defines The Hebrew Term “Cushite” As “Moor” in English
“The English word “west,” as we use it today, originated from an old Anglo-Saxon and Gothic (the Goths and the Saxons were Germanic tribes in north-central Europe; the Anglos were a tribe of the Saxons from whom the English people originated) root word, vas, which meant to dwell – not referring foremost to people, but to the sun. Their logic was that, just as most people go to their dwelling place at night, they regarded the “west” as the dwelling place of the sun because that’s where it went at night when it set in that direction. The original meaning of “west” was used to translate two original Hebrew words of the Holy Scriptures. One of them, pronounced yawm, means to roar. It referred to the Mediterranean Sea (although it was not known to the ancient Israelites by that name) which formed the western border of the land of Israel as a whole. The other Hebrew word is pronounced maw-ar-aw-baw; it means shading or shadows, as produced by the sun as it set in the west. To the ancient Israelites, “west” was both the end of their land, and the end of their day. See What Did West Mean To The Israelites?
Maghreb: “The Maghreb (/ˈmʌɡrəb/; Arabic: المغرب, translit. al-Maɣréb, lit. ‘The West’), also known as Northwest Africa or Northern Africa, Greater Arab Maghreb (Arabic: المغرب العربي الكبير, translit. al-Maghrib al-ʿArabi al-Kabir), Arab Maghreb (Arabic: المغرب العربي, translit. al-Maghrib al-ʿArabi) or Greater Maghreb (Arabic: المغرب الكبير, translit. al-Maghrib al-Kabīr), or by some sources the Berber world, Barbary and Berbery, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania. It additionally includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara (mostly controlled by Morocco) and the cities of Melilla and Ceuta (both controlled by Spain and claimed by Morocco). As of 2018, the region has a population of over 100 million people. ”
“Mauritania, by which most of this region was known to them, being derived from a native word mahur, maur, the “west,” whence the Mahurim of the Phoenicians, and the Mauri of the Greeks and Romans. Later the expression “Barbary States,” which had reference to the indigenous Berberpopulations, came into general use, and is not yet quite obsolete.”
Page 77 states:
“In ancient times the most general name of the Atlas populations appears to have been Mahur, that is “Highlanders,” whence the Roman Mauri, and Mauri-tania, “Mauri-land.” But in the course of ages, this word Mauri has undergone strange vicissitudes. Under the various forms of Moro, Morisco, Moor, it came to be applied in a vague way to all the natives of North Africa, and the more particularly to the Negroes or blacks (compare “Blackamoor”), who were popularly supposed to be the exclusive inhabitants of the African continent.”
Thirteenth Source: The book Plurality of the Human Race: According to the Teachings Both of the Bible By Edwin Henderson Randle states on page 155:
“…name of Mahras of Hamitic origin, whose language has greatly aided in unlocking the ancient Hamitic tongues. Compare this with Mauri (the Moors) and Mahur (the West), and their sameness of origin will at once be suggested. If correct, the Mauri did not take their name from Mahur (the West), else how did the Mahras of the South get their name. Is it not more reasonable to suppose that all three find a common origin in Mizraim or some of its varied forms?”
Fourteenth Source: The Imperial Gazetteer: A General Dictionary of Geography …, Volume 2 has an entire section on “Marocco”. On page 306 it states:
” The belief that their name was derived from a Greek word which signifies black is evidently without foundation; for the inhabitants of N.W. angle of Africa are not and never were black; and besides, the Romans, though they used the name Mauri; preferred calling the people Maurusii, a variation which evidently discountenances the proposed Greek etymology. It is more likely the name Mauri was derived from a Semitic word [Hebrew, Mahur) signifying the West, so that is was, in fact, equivalent to the Maghrebi of the present day. At all events, the inhabitants of the Iberian peninsula knew the occupants of the opposite African coasts under no other name than that of Maurusii, Mauri, or Moors; and consequently, when, at the commencement of the 8th century, the Arabs carried their victorious arms from W. Barbary into Spain, they were generally called by Spanish writers, the Moors; the name comprising the Berbers as well as the pure Arab tribes and dynasties which for some centuries ruled in Spain.”
Fifthteenth Source: A book titled: Our Vulgar Tongue: A Lecture on Language in General, with a Few Words on …By Samuel Lysons states:
“Marning,” as we pronounce the word “morning,” corresponds with “Mahur” of the Hebrew, and this word again is found among the aborigines of Western Austrailia and in Spain, with nearly the same sound and spelling.
Sixteenth Source: The Encyclopaedia Londinensis, Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts …, Volume 14 states:
“Mauritania and Maurufia, the names of this country, are derived from the Mauri, an ancient people who inhabited it; and Bochart considers Maurus as equivalent to Maur, or Maur, i.e. one from the west or an occidentalist, Mauritania being west of Carthage and Phoenicia. This country, it is well known, before also the name of Barbary, of which there are several derivations. To those that occur under BARBARY, vol. ii. we shall here add, that the name may be formed from the oriental Bar Barca, or the Sea of Barca, a town of the Pentapolis, called afterward Ptolemans.”
Seventeenth Source: Somalispot.com blog states: “The origin of the name is doubtful. Some derive it from the word BapBapoi(barbarians) employed first by the Greeks and later by the Romans. Others attribute it to the Arab conquerors. Tribal titles, Barabara and Beraberata, appear in 1700 and 1300 BC and the Berbers were known to the Egyptians as”Lebu,” “Mashuasha,” “Tamahu,” “Tehennu” and “Kahaka”; a long list of names is found in Herodotus; and the Romans called them Numidae, Gaetuli and Mauri, terms derived from the Greek vomaves (nomads), the name Gued’oula, of a great Berber tribe, and the Hebrew mahur (western).”
Eighteenth Source: GluedIdeas.com has an article on “Berbers” which states:
“BERBERS, the name of the various branches of the indigenous “Libyan” race of North Africa. Since the dawn of history, the Berbers have occupied the tract between the Mediterranean and the Sahara from Egypt to the Atlantic. The origin of the name is doubtful. Some derive it from the word (36,pi3apot (barbarians), employed first by the Greeks and later by the Romans.”
“Others attribute it to the Arab conquerors. Tribal titles, Barabara and Beraberata, appear in Egyptian inscriptions of 170o and 130o B.C., and the Berbers were known to the Egyptians as “Lebu,” “Mashu asha,” “Tamahu,” “Tehennu” and “Kahaka”; a long list of names is found in Herodotus; and the Romans called them Numidae, Gaetuli and Mauri, terms derived respectively from the Greek voµuBES (nomads), the name Gued’oula, of a great Berber tribe, and the Hebrew mahur (western) . In regard to the ethnic relations of the Berbers, on the monuments of Egypt, their ancestors are pictured with the comparatively blond features which many of them still display.”
“Though considerable individual differences of type may be found in every village, the Berbers are distinctively a “white” race. Dark hair and brown or hazel eyes are the rules; blue-eyed blonds are found, but their frequency has been considerably overstated. The invaders who have most affected the Berber race are the Arabs, but the two races, with a common religion, often a common government, and the same tribal groupings, have failed to amalgamate to any great extent. The Berber is straightforward, honest, by no means averse to money-making, but not unscrupulous in the methods which he employs to this end, and trustworthy.”
Nineteenth Source: Another Blog titled: “Nomads Sentence Examples” states: “To the Egyptians they were known as ” Lebu,” ” Mashuasha,” ” Tamahu,” ” Tehennu ” and ” Kahaka “; a long list of names is found in Herodotus, and the Romans called them Numidae, Gaetuli and Mauri, terms which have been derived respectively from the Greek voµaSes (nomads), the name Gued’oula, of a great Berber tribe, and the Hebrew mahur (western).”
Twentieth Source: The word Moor Is Derived From The Phoenician Term Mauharim Not Greek. See article by BY WARLOCK ASYLUM ON JANUARY 28, 2019
Twenty First Source: “This early Phoenician title of Muru, Mer, Marutu or Martu, meaning “Of the Western Sea (or Sea of the Setting Sun)”, which now seems obviously the Phonecian source of the name “Mauretania,” or “Mor–occo” with its teeming megaliths, and of “Mor–bihan” (or LittleMor“) in Brittany, with its Sun-cult megaliths, is also found in several of the old mining and trading centres of the earlier Phoenicians in Britain, associated with Stone Circles and megaliths and mostly on the coast, e.g., Mori-dunum, port of Romans in Devon, and several More-dun, Mor-ton and Martin, Caser Marthen, West Mor-land, rich in circles and old mines, More-cambe Bay, Moray and its Frith and seat of Murray clan, &c.” Source: The Phoenician Origin of Britons Scots and Anglo-Saxons by Laurence Waddell
Twenty Second Source:
“Now, there was probably some difference between a “Moor” and a “Saracen,” although in heraldry there does not seem to be much distinction. The Agerine pirates who made occasional descents upon our coast, were probably the latest wearers of this title. “The opinon which has been most generally supported, and prevails at the present time, is that the word was originally Sharkeyn,” an Arabian word signifying “eastern people,” and used in contradistinction to Mahgribe, or “western people,” the Moors of Morocco. While, therefore, all Saracens were Moors, all Moors were not necessarily Saracens. But at any rate, the term “Sracen” has been applied to the piratical invaders of this country from a very early period.”