“Modern Historians believe Ghana began to rise as a commercial power as early as A.D. 300. One reason they pick this date is that coins struck in North Africa at that time have been found in Western Sudan.”

“The Soninke, who were well organized, settled farmers, and the nomadic Berbers, who ran the caravans across the desert, lived in a kind of armed peace.”

“When the Berber forces had a temporary advantage, they would raid into Ghana. Warring clans often settled disputes or sealed treaties by united their ruling families through marriage and forming a new clan.”

“Did the Mande-speakers view the Berbers as “goblins” when they ruled parts of their land? When they defeated the Berbers, did a Mande king marry several of a Berber chief’s daughters and establish a new royal clan? Certainly this is one way to read the pui of Dinga in the light of history.”

Citing The Royal Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay: Life in Medieval Africa

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