The Moors Were Targets For Portuguese, Spaniard and English Slave Markets
Initial Q: Two Soldiers Leading Two Moors before a King (detail), from Feudal Customs of Aragon, Huesca (Spain), about 1290-1310, artist unknown. The J. Paul Getty Museum

The Moors Were Targets For Portuguese, Spaniard and English Slave Markets

  “Pope Urban II, 1088–1099, granted Spanish crusaders the same papal indulgences that were granted for making pilgrimages to Jerusalem. Urban thereafter issued the first call for crusades to the holy…

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The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam By David M. Goldenberg

  Note too that the early Arab (not African) leader 'Ubada inb al-Samit is described as a black (aswad) man, and consider the expression used by the Arabic writers to…

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An “Arap (Arab)” According to Vladimir Dal’s 1863 Dictionary, meant a “Black-skinned Person”
Painting of Emperor's palace with an arap serving there. Mihály Zichy/Hermitage Museum

An “Arap (Arab)” According to Vladimir Dal’s 1863 Dictionary, meant a “Black-skinned Person”

"To the Cushite race belonged the oldest and purest Arabian blood. They were the original Arabians and the creators of the ancient civilization, evidences of which may be seen in…

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Invention of the White Race Vol. 1 Racial Oppression and Social Control By Theodore W. Allen
Ptolemy Cosmographia 1467 - North Africa

Invention of the White Race Vol. 1 Racial Oppression and Social Control By Theodore W. Allen

I appreciate the effort and spirit of Theodore W. Allen's work, as his position about the "White Race" formed in America is correct. However, the concept of "White Race" preceded…

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