Moor Originally Meant Westerner Not “Black, Negro Or Colored”

448520274_ab7f47cca8The Ancient Moors were indeed black as coal or brown as wood or tree bark complexion(s) and color(s), however the term itself does not mean Black or Negro, as English dictionaries would give the untrained mind the delusion of or as your so called scholars and teachers may have taught you. What they have done is replaced the true meaning of the term with the complexion or skin color description as to the people in thier efforts to implement White Supremacy into literature which requires the duty to Blacken or strip dark skin people of their Moorish heritage i.e. continuing Massa’s Religious Conversion which requires Name and Heritage stripping aka Denationalization.

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They want you to feel comfortable identifying under badges of Slavery branded upon Moors starting in 1441 A.D. such as Negro and Black, when these two terms that are only found on Slave Records and revisionist history books written in effort to create Black Pride in those learning about the history, heritage and culture of the Moors, who claim it as Black History instead of Moorish History, it was Black authors who accepted the badges of slavery as a suitable Political i.e. Racial Identity following behind White Supremacist authors. These same Black authors chose to ignore the use of the “Black Caste/Badge of Slavery” as only being employed in Slave Records and accepted it as an identifier for various Indigenous and Ancient Nations, Kingdoms and Tribes. However, the truth can be colored over but it cannot be removed.  The reason you see Negro and Black in dictionaries defining Moor is because the authors of the dictionaries were on board with branding Moors as Negro and Black.

quote-the-real-contribution-of-rihani-consists-in-having-given-us-in-both-arabic-and-english-philip-khuri-hitti-133-90-48The first source I present that Moor means Westerner is Philip Khuri Hitti (فيليب خوري حتي in Arabic), (Shimlan 1886 – Princeton 1978) was a Lebanese American scholar and authority on Arab and Middle Eastern history, Islam, andSemitic languages. He almost single-handedly created the discipline of Arabic Studies in the United States. In his work History of the Arabs first published in 1937, contended that the term “Moor” has a geographic designation meaning Western.

im000972Hitti spent 10 years writing this book he provided that “The Romans called Western Africa “Mauretania” and its inhabitants Mauri (presumably of Phoenician origin meaning ‘Western’) whence [the] Spanish Moor [and the] English Moor. The Berbers, therefore, were the Moors proper, but the term was conventionally applied to all Moslems of Spain and North-western Africa.”

I’ve just read your excellent article “MOOR MEANS WESTERNER NOT “BLACK, NEGRO OR COLORED”. A small point, it’s a pity it is illustrated with a picture of an Assyrian Geni which has nothing at all to do with the Amorites or Phoenicians. The Assyrian and Babylonian word for ancient Syria and the Mediterranean coast was Amuru (I’m an ex-Assyriologist) and I think your description of it’s misuse good. However, the picture is not of a Phoenician or an Amorite, but definitely originates from an Assyrian relief, i.e., in the East. The Assyrians lived in Iraq near modern day Mosul and they certainly originated the word. Just trying to be helpful. If you research Assyrian reliefs you’ll see where I’m coming from. Thanks.  – John Bruce.

dictionariesThe origins of the term is not elusive like most claim and do not go back to Death and all these frivolous notions many people have come up with today on Youtube. The arrogance within the ignorance is remarkable, among some of these bogus scholars and educators, you even have people on the Hidden Colors video purporting to be educators telling people that Moors means Black, this is because they do not deal with technicalities, the fact that English Dictionaries from the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th and early 19th century use Black and Negro and sometimes Black man merely demonstrates who it applied to versus specifically meaning that Moor means Black or Negro, what it shows is that the writers of the English Dictionaries were on board with the Stripping of Name and Heritage Scheme, they branded Moors as Negroes and Blacks, thus it was significant to define Moor as Negro and Black in their dictionaries so the English descendants would not forget who the term Moor applies too i.e. the People now identified as Negros and Blacks.

arabicThe Second Source provides that its derivation from the Semitic etymon Mahourím, “People of the West,” those who say that source is questionable are usually unaware as to the Phoenician/Canaanite origin to the term Roman “Maure”, and the Greek “Mavros” whcih gave birth to the Romance languages (German, English, French, Spanish, etc), the Arabic al-Mar is extremely rare and is alleged to not occur in Andalusi Arabic sources which I think is irrelevant because the Moors (Maures) were a Nation composed of many tribes before the Andalusian Era in general.  Mauroi is late Greek and may have been derived from the Latin ethnic name Mauri. Following the destruction of Carthage in 146 B.C.E., the term mauri was used to indicate the tribes inhabiting the Roman provinces established in Ancient Mauretania, corresponding to modern-day western Algeria and northeastern Morocco.

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In the Latin Middle Ages, Mauri referred to a mixture of Berbers and Arabs inhabiting the coastal regions of Northwest Africa. In Spain, Portugal, and Italy, Mauri became Moros (Maures in French). More commonly, however, it was a racial designation for dark-skinned or black skin peoples, as in its English usage, which is seen as early as the fourteenth century.  The source article explained the term “Moor” as background to Menocal’s Ornament of the World and Maalouf’s Leo Africanus. See the article by David Assouline reprinted from The Oxford Encyclopedia …

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Now as to my Third Source demonstrating the relationship between “Moor” and “Westerner”. The Normans re-took Sicily in 1061, establishes trading relationships with northern Africa, and employed Africans in their armies. Fredrick II, for example no only used such warriors but placed them in his bodyguard. These African guards, together with African musicians and animal keepers, as well as the Emperor’s African personal attendants, formed part of the imperial processions. An African Johannes Morus, was appointed vizier of the Kingdom of Sicily. (The etymology of the word Moor is uncertain, it can be traced to the Phoenician term “Mahurin” meaning “Westerners”;  See Encyclopedia of the World’s Minorities  By Carl Skutsch The fact that the West is called the Maghrib should also ring a bell.

Finally for the Fourth Source: “The 4d896d6f5e1cd395be5a1b742b1868e5the Mediterranean and south-western European ports. They were the foremost among the ancient merchants. They inhabited only a narrow strip of the northern coastline of Palestine. The area was originally settled by Amorites (meaning “Westerners”), who were not necessarily Hebrews, but were a kindred people. They were Semitic, or Shemitic people, that is, they claimed descent from Shem. Although they later became very mixed with the descendants of Ham, such as the Canaanites, they had a high proportion of fair skinned, fair-haired Shemitic peoples, from whom Abraham and his family came. When Israel later settled in the Promised Land, many Israelite’s, mostly from the tribes of Dan and Zebulun, joined with them in their seafaring enterprises. In this way the forerunners of the later Israelitish migrations reached the British Isles, and they had settlements in Spain and Portugal. The Phoenicians had included Canaanites and Jebusites, as well as Israelites, but the rulers of the Phoenician and Carthaginian nations were of the Semitic stock, as we may guess from the story of Hiram, King of Tyre, in Phoenicia. He was of great assistance to King Solomon of Israel in his temple building operations of the Temple. If Hiram had not been of the original Amoritic or Shemitic stock, it is unlikely that he would have been so friendly and helpful to a king of Israel. http://www.ensignmessage.com/phoenicians.html See WHO WERE THE PHOENICIANS AND CARTHAGINIANS? By Valerie Martlew, U.K.

 

 

 

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Legal Foundation of Sovereignty & Possession In The English New World

51yubqexjdl-_sx258_bo1204203200_“The brothers Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus had offered their westward services to Henry VII in 1491-92 in the hopes of receiving patronage,  although there is no evidence that they recieved English royal favour before approaching the rulers of Castile. Perhaps it was this event to which Northampton was referring, which would imply a certain degree of foreknowledge of the New World antedating Columbus’s actual “discoveries”. Probably, however Northampton (or the clerk recorded the proceedings) simply made an error; Henry VII never issued a patent to Columbus, but he did issue one to John Cabot on 5 March 1496 (quinto Martii anno 11), which was likely the document to which Northampton was referring.” 

 

 

 

 

 

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“As his reference to royal patents indicate, Northampton also emphasized the importance of claims of the first discovery being supported by the authority and knowledge of a sovereign monarch, which in his mind validated the English discoveries and brought into question those of Columbus. Whereas Henry VII had issued charters to John and Sebastian Cabot, Hugh Eliot, and others for the specific purpose of seeking out newfound lands in North America, which resulted in the discovery of “Labrador” (construed by Northampton as North America north Florida), Columbus’s patent authorized him only to discover a passage to China and the East Indies. Instead, he and his men found the West Indies not “by their skill but by mere chance they being cast up in those places by shipwreck, not guided by foresight or knowledge.”

“This argument would seem to suggest that Ferdinand and Isabella, in issuing their speculative patents, lacked the “certain knowledge” and mental intention to posses that holders of imperium should demonstrate. Northampton did not mention, ofcourse, that Henry VII was greatly aided in his knowledge by reports of Columbus’s 1492 voyage. In addition, Northampton argued, if the Iberians could claim “that if first discovery might give occasion of any such prohibition then [the English] might restrain their fishing in the North seas [presumably Greenland], which notwithstanding the Spaniards took the liberty to use.” 

Click Here to Read Moor Sovereignty and Possession in the English New World: The Legal Foundations … By Ken MacMillan

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The Discovery of America Was An Outgrowth Of Conquering The Moors in Spain

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This is a fascinating book, and not too long to read either. I find it amazingly interesting because I have spoken to my fellow Moors plenty of times about the title of this book, and to actually find a book that delves into this subject, and to find that it was published in 1883 heightens the level of intrigue. This shows you that European culture was able to explore new lands once they conquered the Moors. See The Discovery of America an Outgrowth of Conquering The Moors Published 1883

Publisher New York city, Springfield, Mass.
Pages 36
Possible copyright status NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT
Language English
Call number 6788098
Digitizing sponsor Sloan Foundation
Book contributor The Library of Congress
Collection library_of_congressamericana

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16th Century AD Medieval Iberian Moriscos Silver Carnealian Ring

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This is a beautiful complete original example of a silver Moriscos (Moorish), late Medieval ring from Iberia – modern day Spain and Portugal. The ring is dated Circa: 15th – 16th Century. The band is silver and convex in section which rises to the shoulders which, are detailed with three silver nodules. The bezel is circular and rises to form a collar which is decorated with detailed scroll-work and above which is seen tri-form silver roundels around the circumference of the collar case. The setting is that of a fire colored red to orange Carnelian gem. The gem details wonderful separation striations between the deep red and orange color tones.

 

 

 

The ring details original dark silver-oxide patination tones particularly to the inside band. The outside areas of a wonderful original silver aged tone with lighter silver tones seen only on worn areas. Ring size at UK Size N 1/2, US Ring and Canada Ring size 7: @ 9.5 grams: My ring grade Very Fine: Provenance: I acquired this ring in 2013 from a Private Spanish Collector on the London Art Market.

The Moriscos (Moorish) Notes: 13th Century Onward:
il_570xn-658578023_ri47The Moorish Kingdom of Granada continued for three more centuries in southern Iberia. On January 2, 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in Granada surrendered to armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, the Catholic Monarchs). They forced the remaining Jews to leave Spain, convert to Roman Catholic Christianity or be killed for not doing so. To exert social and religious control, in 1480, Isabella and Ferdinand agreed to allow the Inquisition in Spain. Granada’s Muslim population rebelled in 1499. The revolt lasted until early 1501, giving the Castilian authorities an excuse to void the terms of the Treaty of Granada (1491). In 1501 Castilian authorities delivered an ultimatum to Granada’s Muslims: they could either convert to Christianity or be expelled.

The Inquisition was aimed mostly at Jews and Muslims who had overtly converted to Christianity but were thought to be practicing their faiths secretly. They were respectively called marranos and moriscos. However, in 1567 King Philip II directed Moriscos to give up their Arabic names and traditional dress, and prohibited the use of the Arabic language. In reaction, there was a Morisco uprising in the Alpujarras from 1568 to 1571. In the years from 1609 to 1614, the government expelled Moriscos. The historian Henri Lapeyre estimated that this affected 300,000 out of an estimated total of 8 million inhabitants

$1,281.02 USD

Only 1 available

Overview

  • Vintage item
  • Materials: Antique Silver Ring, Moorish Silver, Moorish Ring, Spanish Ring, Medieval Ring, Carnelian Ring, Magical Ring, Iberian Silver, Iberian Ring
  • Feedback: 30 reviews 
  • Ships worldwide from Yaxley, United Kingdom

Ring Grade Scale Meanings:

Extremely Fine:
Perfect in my opinion in all regards.

Very Fine:
Near perfect oval band, setting and gem stone or intaglio representation (note the description for specific listing guidance).

Fine:
Fine band oval with slight off circle on plan, setting may contain age blemish marks or slight chips and or scratches (note the description for specific listing guidance).

Good to Fine:
The ring will have flaws as listed within the descriptions and shown on listing pictures. Note ancient rings will always be listed thus (note the description for specific listing guidance).

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Columbus Plan: Sail West to Set up Trading Post to Finance Crusade Against Moors !

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Less well known was a voyage by Columbus to the Gold Coast in West Africa in 1481, sponsored by King John II of Portugal. In contrast to the Eurocentric myth of disorder and barbarism prevalent in Africa, during this voyage Columbus encountered civilized communities and well-established states with very complex social, political, and economic structures. At the time of Columbus’s visit, the most impressive medieval Moorish (West African) empire, Songhay, was still in existence. Its noted center of scholarship, Timbuktu, the home of the world-renowned higher educational institution, the Sankoré University, still possessed a great deal of its splendor. Columbus who visited the Portuguese fortress of Elmina on the Gold Coast, was impressed by the riches of the land, especially its gold. But as an explorer, Columbus learned valuable lessens in geography and oceanography.

This undoubtedly sparked his interest in a voyage westward across the Atlantic, which he erroneously believed would take him to India and establish direct access to the coveted riches of the Orient. More importantly, Columbus’s voyage to West Africa may have laid the groundwork for the first contact between that part of Africa and the Americas. A few West Africans were said to have returned with him to Europe and eventually accompanied him on his voyages to the New World between 1492 and 1504. Some scholars, however, have suggested the possibility of an African presence in the Americas before the arrival of Columbus.

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The argument is that some West African people, probably from the Senegambia area, were known to Native Americans prior to arrival of Columbus. The most forceful argument along these lines has been provided by Rutgers linguist and anthropologist Ivan Van Sertima, who marshalled an array of archaeological, historical, and botanical evidence to argue his case. The United States and West Africa: Interactions and Relations pg. 18 Because Columbus has been such an important figure in the collective imagination of Americans, what we make of him affects both how we view our history and imagine our future. In what follows, I wish, first to detangle Columbus’s motivations from the accusations that have been brought against him and then to trace briefly the apocalyptic scenario and the place of Jerusalem that figured so centrally to his quest. To distance ourselves from his religious views obscures how deeply influential they have been, and continue to be in our national and political consciousness. Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem: How Religion Drove the Voyages that Led to America pg. 236

The principal factor which governed Columbus’s life and motivated his activities was—as he put it in a letter to the Spanish monarchs—to spread the light of the Gospel throughout the world and enlist the newly converted peoples in the life-and-death war with the empire of Muhammad. His ultimate goals included the “recovery” of the Holy Land, especially Jerusalem, in preparation for the Kingdom of God. In fact, it was his deep religious convictions in prophecy which, according to The New Millennial Manual, enabled him to convince Ferdinand and Isabella to finance his “Enterprise of the Indies.” And the “Enterprise” was to be the first stage in a new Crusade which would enable the Spanish monarchs to “recapture” the Holy Land and restore the Christian faith there. Throughout his life, Columbus insisted that Providence was always guiding his steps and directing his efforts.

In fact, at the end of his first voyage, and in a letter to the Spanish court dated February 15, 1492, Columbus said that the Bible was his lifetime roadmap for the fulfillment of divine prophecies and the rebuilding of Zion. This letter was subsequently printed and translated into many European languages. In it, Columbus summed up his global program “to conquer the world, spread the Christian faith, and regain the Holy Land and the Temple Mount.” During the last voyage (1502-04), Columbus recorded in his journals that he heard voices and saw visions of God urging him on to carry out His mission. This belief in a Providential mission is what motivated Columbus to so relentlessly pursue his project of the “Enterprise of the Indies.” He wrote:

Who would doubt that this light, which urged me on with a great haste continuously, without a moment’s pause, came to you in a most deep manner, as it did to me? In this my voyage to the Indies, Our Lord wished to perform [a] very evident miracle in order to console me and others in the matter of this other voyage to the Holy Sepulcher [Jerusalem]. To realize the originality as well as the significance of Columbus’s missionary efforts and zeal to fulfill the “prophecies,” one should remember that his campaign preceded the Protestant Reformation and the resulting emphasis on Old Testament prophecies and missionary drive.

This zeal and literal interpretation of sacred prophecies led Delno West to describe Columbus as “the first American hero with all the rights and privileges, myths and legends, and criticisms the title carries.” In his obsession with the rebuilding of Zion and the preparation for the Coming Kingdom, Columbus anticipated the early Puritan settlers of the New World, the nineteenth-century end-times churches and missionary establishment, and the present-day American grand plans for the world. In essence, Columbus’s program is a roadmap for the modern campaign of the Christian Right in America today.

See PAUL BOYER’s  Did Christopher Columbus see himself on an apocalyptic mission?..

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