WHEREAS, The Supreme Court of the United States has solemnly declared its opinion that the congressional enactment known as the civil rights law, of February 27, 1875, is not in accordance with the United States Constitution, and consequently inoperative as a measure for the protection of the negro in his manhood rights; and whereas, the customs and traditions of many of the States in the Union are inimical to the negro as a man and as a citizen, he finds neither in the common law nor in the sentiments of his white fellow citizens, [See Introduction To Moorish Treaties 1662-1856] that full protection which he has earned by his loyalty and devotion to the nation in its hour of extreme peril; Page 44 THE RESOLUTIONS. See Henry McNeal Turner, 1834-1915. The Barbarous Decision of the United States Supreme Court Declaring the Civil Rights Act Unconstitutional and Disrobing the Colored Race of All Civil Protection.
A free negro of the African race, whose ancestors were brought to this country and sold as slaves, is not a “citizen” within the meaning of the Constitution of the United States. 5. When the Constitution was adopted, they were not regarded in any of the States as members of the community which constituted the State, and were not numbered among its “people or citizens.” Consequently, the special rights and immunities guarantied to citizens do not apply to them. And not being “citizens” within the meaning of the Constitution, they are not entitled to sue in that character in a court of the United States. They had for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order, and altogether unfit to associate with the white race either in social or political relations, and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect, [See Introduction To Moorish Treaties 1662-1856] and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit.
He was bought and sold, and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic whenever a profit could be made by it. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race. [See Introduction to Moorish Race and Nationality.]”And in no nation was this opinion more firmly fixed or more [p408] uniformly acted upon than by the English Government and English people. They not only seized them on the [West] coast of Africa and sold them or held them in slavery for their own use, but they took them as ordinary articles of merchandise to every country where they could make a profit on them, and were far more extensively engaged in this commerce than any other nation in the world. The opinion thus entertained and acted upon in England was naturally impressed upon the colonies they founded on this side of the Atlantic.
“And, accordingly, a negro of the African race was regarded by them as an article of property, and held, and bought and sold as such, in every one of the thirteen colonies which united in the Declaration of Independence and afterwards formed the Constitution of the United States. The slaves were more or less numerous in the different colonies as slave labor (Study the History of the U.S. Department of Labor) was found more or less profitable. But no one seems to have doubted the correctness of the prevailing opinion of the time. The legislation of the different colonies furnishes positive and indisputable proof of this fact. Taney left out the legal understanding as to Moors demonstrating a legal distinction because he was well aware of the treaties between Great Britian and Morocco, that Moors were in the United States and that the Constitution to which he himself as a White man was bound to respect has a Supremacey Clause making treaties the Supreme Law of the United States i.e. Federal law. [See Introduction To Moorish Treaties 1662-1856] Click here to read Scott v. Sandford
Abraham Lincoln Represented a Moorish plaintiff from Portugal in William Dungey (plaintiff) v. Joseph Spencer (defendant). The newspapers referred to William as “Black Bill”. Lincoln Successfully argued: “My client is not a Negro, though it is a crime to be a Negro–no crime to be born with a black skin. But my client is not a Negro. His skin may not be as white as ours, but I say he is not a Negro, though he may be a Moore.”
“Mr. Lincoln,” interrupted Judge Davis, scarcely able to restrain a smile, “you mean a Moor, not Moore.” “Well, your Honor, Moor, not C.H. Moore,” replied Mr. Lincoln, with a sweep of his long arm toward the table where Moore and I sat. “I say my client may be a Moor, but he is not a Negro.” On October 18, 1855, the jury returned a verdict of guilty and granted Dungey $600 in damages plus court costs of $137.50. Lincoln charged a $25 fee, which Lawrence Weldon considered minimal. See Introduction to Moorish Nationality and Status.
The Negro in the New World By Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston states: “When the Portuguese discovers, urged on by Prince Henry of Portugal, had rounded Cape Bojador, and after reaching Rio d’Ouro in 1435……” In his Footnotes it says “This is the reason why blackamoor in English, Morioan in Dutch, Morian in German, Moro in Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian and Moriaud in French were early names for Negroes. “Negro”, a Spanish word, did not come into common use in England till the nineteenth century.” Here the author clearly acknowledges that Moors were given the name Negroes during the era beginning the Atlantic Slave Trade.
The Ancient Moors were indeed black as coal or brown as wood or tree bark complexion(s) and color(s), however the term itself does not mean Black or Negro, as English dictionaries would give the untrained mind the delusion of or as your so called scholars and teachers may have taught you. What they have done is replaced the true meaning of the term with the complexion or skin color description as to the people in thier efforts to implement White Supremacy into literature which requires the duty to Blacken or strip dark skin people of their Moorish heritage i.e. continuing Massa’s Religious Conversion which requires Name and Heritage stripping aka Denationalization.
They want you to feel comfortable identifying under badges of Slavery branded upon Moors starting in 1441 A.D. such as Negro and Black, when these two terms that are only found on Slave Records and revisionist history books written in effort to create Black Pride in those learning about the history, heritage and culture of the Moors, who claim it as Black History instead of Moorish History, it was Black authors who accepted the badges of slavery as a suitable Political i.e. Racial Identity following behind White Supremacist authors. These same Black authors chose to ignore the use of the “Black Caste/Badge of Slavery” as only being employed in Slave Records and accepted it as an identifier for various Indigenous and Ancient Nations, Kingdoms and Tribes. However, the truth can be colored over but it cannot be removed. The reason you see Negro and Black in dictionaries defining Moor is because the authors of the dictionaries were on board with branding Moors as Negro and Black.
The first source I present that Moor means Westerner is Philip Khuri Hitti (فيليب خوري حتي in Arabic), (Shimlan 1886 – Princeton 1978) was a Lebanese American scholar and authority on Arab and Middle Eastern history, Islam, andSemitic languages. He almost single-handedly created the discipline of Arabic Studies in the United States. In his work History of the Arabs first published in 1937, contended that the term “Moor” has a geographic designation meaning Western.
Hitti spent 10 years writing this book he provided that “The Romans called Western Africa “Mauretania” and its inhabitants Mauri (presumably of Phoenician origin meaning ‘Western’) whence [the] Spanish Moor [and the] English Moor. The Berbers, therefore, were the Moors proper, but the term was conventionally applied to all Moslems of Spain and North-western Africa.”
I’ve just read your excellent article “MOOR MEANS WESTERNER NOT “BLACK, NEGRO OR COLORED”. A small point, it’s a pity it is illustrated with a picture of an Assyrian Geni which has nothing at all to do with the Amorites or Phoenicians. The Assyrian and Babylonian word for ancient Syria and the Mediterranean coast was Amuru (I’m an ex-Assyriologist) and I think your description of it’s misuse good. However, the picture is not of a Phoenician or an Amorite, but definitely originates from an Assyrian relief, i.e., in the East. The Assyrians lived in Iraq near modern day Mosul and they certainly originated the word. Just trying to be helpful. If you research Assyrian reliefs you’ll see where I’m coming from. Thanks. – John Bruce.
The origins of the term is not elusive like most claim and do not go back to Death and all these frivolous notions many people have come up with today on Youtube. The arrogance within the ignorance is remarkable, among some of these bogus scholars and educators, you even have people on the Hidden Colors video purporting to be educators telling people that Moors means Black, this is because they do not deal with technicalities, the fact that English Dictionaries from the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th and early 19th century use Black and Negro and sometimes Black man merely demonstrates who it applied to versus specifically meaning that Moor means Black or Negro, what it shows is that the writers of the English Dictionaries were on board with the Stripping of Name and Heritage Scheme, they branded Moors as Negroes and Blacks, thus it was significant to define Moor as Negro and Black in their dictionaries so the English descendants would not forget who the term Moor applies too i.e. the People now identified as Negros and Blacks.
The Second Source provides that its derivation from the Semitic etymon Mahourím, “People of the West,” those who say that source is questionable are usually unaware as to the Phoenician/Canaanite origin to the term Roman “Maure”, and the Greek “Mavros” whcih gave birth to the Romance languages (German, English, French, Spanish, etc), the Arabic al-Mar is extremely rare and is alleged to not occur in Andalusi Arabic sources which I think is irrelevant because the Moors (Maures) were a Nation composed of many tribes before the Andalusian Era in general. Mauroi is late Greek and may have been derived from the Latin ethnic name Mauri. Following the destruction of Carthage in 146 B.C.E., the term mauri was used to indicate the tribes inhabiting the Roman provinces established in Ancient Mauretania, corresponding to modern-day western Algeria and northeastern Morocco.
In the Latin Middle Ages, Mauri referred to a mixture of Berbers and Arabs inhabiting the coastal regions of Northwest Africa. In Spain, Portugal, and Italy, Mauri became Moros (Maures in French). More commonly, however, it was a racial designation for dark-skinned or black skin peoples, as in its English usage, which is seen as early as the fourteenth century. The source article explained the term “Moor” as background to Menocal’s Ornament of the World and Maalouf’s Leo Africanus. See the article by David Assouline reprinted from The Oxford Encyclopedia …
Now as to my Third Source demonstrating the relationship between “Moor” and “Westerner”. The Normans re-took Sicily in 1061, establishes trading relationships with northern Africa, and employed Africans in their armies. Fredrick II, for example no only used such warriors but placed them in his bodyguard. These African guards, together with African musicians and animal keepers, as well as the Emperor’s African personal attendants, formed part of the imperial processions. An African Johannes Morus, was appointed vizier of the Kingdom of Sicily. (The etymology of the word Moor is uncertain, it can be traced to the Phoenician term “Mahurin” meaning “Westerners”; See Encyclopedia of the World’s Minorities By Carl Skutsch The fact that the West is called the Maghrib should also ring a bell.
Finally for the Fourth Source: “The the Mediterranean and south-western European ports. They were the foremost among the ancient merchants. They inhabited only a narrow strip of the northern coastline of Palestine. The area was originally settled by Amorites (meaning “Westerners”), who were not necessarily Hebrews, but were a kindred people. They were Semitic, or Shemitic people, that is, they claimed descent from Shem. Although they later became very mixed with the descendants of Ham, such as the Canaanites, they had a high proportion of fair skinned, fair-haired Shemitic peoples, from whom Abraham and his family came. When Israel later settled in the Promised Land, many Israelite’s, mostly from the tribes of Dan and Zebulun, joined with them in their seafaring enterprises. In this way the forerunners of the later Israelitish migrations reached the British Isles, and they had settlements in Spain and Portugal. The Phoenicians had included Canaanites and Jebusites, as well as Israelites, but the rulers of the Phoenician and Carthaginian nations were of the Semitic stock, as we may guess from the story of Hiram, King of Tyre, in Phoenicia. He was of great assistance to King Solomon of Israel in his temple building operations of the Temple. If Hiram had not been of the original Amoritic or Shemitic stock, it is unlikely that he would have been so friendly and helpful to a king of Israel. http://www.ensignmessage.com/phoenicians.html See WHO WERE THE PHOENICIANS AND CARTHAGINIANS? By Valerie Martlew, U.K.
In the last few chapters of El Hajj Malik Shabazz’s autobiography he made a statement about the Moorish Empire. Elijah Muhammad also made a statement about the Moors in the Theology of time.
“Now then, once you see that the condition that we’re in is directly related to our lack of knowledge concerning the history of the Black man, only then can you realize the importance of knowing something about the history of the Black man. The Black man’s history—when you refer to him as the Black man you go way back, but when you refer to him as a Negro, you can only go as far back as the Negro goes. And when you go beyond the shores of America you can’t find a Negro.”
“So if you go beyond the shores of America in history, looking for the history of the Black man, and you’re looking for him under the term Negro, you won’t find him. He doesn’t exist. So you end up thinking that you didn’t play any role in history. But if you want to take the time to do research for yourself, I think you’ll find that on the African continent there was always, prior to the discovery of America, there was always a higher level of history, rather a higher level of culture and civilization, than that which existed in Europe at the same time.At least five thousand years ago they had a Black civilization in the Middle East called the Sumerians.”
“Now when they show you pictures of the Sumerians they try and make you think that they were white people. But if you go and read some of the ancient manuscripts or even read between the lines of some of the current writers, you’ll find that the Sumerian civilization was a very dark-skinned civilization, and it existed prior even to the existence of the Babylonian empire, right in the same area where you find Iraq and the Tigris-Euphrates rivers there.”
“It was a black-skinned people who lived there, who had a high state of culture way back then.And at a time even beyond this there was a black-skinned people in India, who were Black, just as Black as you and I, called Dravidian’s. They inhabited the subcontinent of India even before the present people that you see living there today, and they had a high state of culture. The present people of India even looked upon them as gods; most of their statues, if you’ll notice, have pronounced African features.”
“You go right to India today—in their religion, which is called Buddhism, they give all their Buddhas the image of a Black man, with his lips and his nose, and even show his hair all curled up on his head; they didn’t curl it up, he was born that way. And these people lived in that area before the present people of India lived there.The Black man lived in the Middle East before the present people who are now living there. And he had a high culture and a high civilization, to say nothing about the oldest civilization of all that he had in Egypt along the banks of the Nile. And in Carthage in northwest Africa, another part of the continent, and at a later date in Mali and Ghana and Songhai and Moorish civilization—all of these civilizations existed on the African continent before America was discovered.”
“This is why you find many Italians dark—some of that Hannibal blood. No Italian will ever jump up in my face and start putting bad mouth on me, because I know his history. I tell him when you talk about me, you’re talking about your pappy, [Laughter] your father. He knows his history, he knows how he got that color.”
“Don’t you know that just a handful of Black American troops spent a couple of years in England during World War II and left more brown babies back there—just a handful of Black American soldiers in England and in Paris and in Germany messed up the whole country. Now what do you think ninety thousand Africans are going to do in Italy for twenty years? [Laughter] It’s good to know this because when you know it, you don’t have to get a club to fight the man—put truth on him. Even the Irish got a dose of your and my blood when the Spanish Armada was defeated off the coast of Ireland, I think around about the seventeenth or eighteenth century; I forget exactly, you can check it out. The Spanish in those days were dark. They were the remnants of the Moors, and they went ashore and settled down in Ireland and right to this very day you’ve got what’s known as the Black Irish. And it’s not an accident that they call them Black Irish. If you look at them, they’ve got dark hair, dark features, and they’ve got Spanish names—like Eamon De Valera, the president, and there used to be another one called Costello.”
“These names came from the Iberian Peninsula, which is the Spanish-Portuguese peninsula, and they came there through these seamen, who were dark in those days. Don’t let any Irishman jump up in your face and start telling you about you—why, he’s got some of your blood too. You’ve spread your blood everywhere. If you start to talk to any one of them, I don’t care where he is, if you know history, you can put him right in his place. In fact, he’ll stay in his place, if he knows that you know your history. West African cultures Also, at that same time or a little later was a civilization called the Moors. The Moors were also a dark-skinned people on the African continent, who had a highly developed civilization.”
“They were such magnificent warriors that they crossed the Straits of Gibraltar in, I think, the year 711, eighth century, conquered Portugal, what we today know as Portugal, Spain, and southern France, conquered it and ruled it for seven hundred years. And they admit that during this time Europe was in the Dark Ages, meaning darkness, ignorance. And it was the only light spot; the only light, the only light of learning, that existed on the European continent at that time were the universities that the Moors had erected in what we today know as Spain and Portugal.”
“These were African universities that they set up in that area. And they ruled throughout that area, up to a place known as Tours, where they were stopped by a Frenchman known in history as Charles Martel, or Charles the Hammer. He stopped the invasion of the Africans, and these were Africans. They try to confuse you and me by calling them Moors, so that you and I won’t know what they were. But when you go home, look in the dictionary. Look up the word M-o-o-r; it will tell you that Moor means black. Well, if Negro means black and Moor means black, then they’re talking about the same people all the time. But they don’t want you and me to know that we were warriors, that we conquered, that we had armies. They want you and me to think that we were always nonviolent, and passive, and peaceful, and forgiving. Sure, we forgave our enemies in those days—after we killed them, we forgave them. [Laughter and applause]”
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In the Century dictionary and cyclopedia By Benjamin Eli Smith the terms Moor and Negro are found. Moor is defined on Page 3852 Moor, n. [Earl mod. E. also Moore, More; <ME. More, Moore, Moore = D. Moor = , MLG. Mor (ef. equiv. MLG, Morian = Dan. and Sw. Morian, Dan. also Maurer) = F. More, also Muare = Pr. Mor = Sp. Moro = Dan. and Sw. Morian, Dan. also Maurer) = F. More, also Maure = Pr. Mor = Sp. Moro = Pg. Mouro = It. Moro, < L. Maurus, M.L. also Morus <Gr. Maupoc, a Moor; perhaps <……., dark (see amaurosis); but perhaps the name was of foreign origin. Cf. blackamoor. Hence Morian, Moresque, Morisco, morris.] One of a dark race dwelling in Barbary in northern Africa. They derive their name from the ancient Mauri or Mauritanians (See Mauritanian), but the present Moors are a mixed race, chiefly Arab and Mauritanian origin. The name is applied especially to the dwellers in the cities. The Arabic conquerors of Spain were called Moors. The folk of that Country be blacke now, and ore black than in the other parts; and there ben ckept Moures. Manderville, Travels P. 146
When we turn to the definition for Negro we find: negro (ne’gro), n. and a. [= F. negre O E. ne- ger, now nigger = D. Gr. Dan. Sw. neger = Buss. negru : see nigger^), < Sp. Pg. It. negro, black, as a noun, negro, m., negra. f., a black person, a negro; It. also nero = Pr. negre, nier = OF. negre, nigre, necre, ner, neir, F. noir, black, < L. niger (nigr-), black, dark, dusk, applied to the night, the sky, a storm, etc., to pitch, ete., to ivy, etc., to the complexion (‘dark’), etc., and also to the black people of Africa, etc. (but the ordinary terms for ‘ African negro ‘ or ‘ African ‘ were ethiops and Afer); also, fig., sad, mourn ful, gloomy, ill-omened, fatal, etc. Cf . Skt. nig, night ; but whether Skt. nig, night, is related to nahta, night, or either to L. niger, black, is not clear. From L. niger are also ult. E. nigrescent, nigritude, Nigella, niello, anneal1 (in part), etc.
The words Moor*, blackamoor, in the same sense, are much older in E. ] I. n. ; pi. negroes (-groz). A black man: specifically, one of a race of men characterized by a black skin and hair of a woolly or crisp nature. Negroes are distinguished from the other races by various other peculiarities — such as the projection of the visage in advance of the forehead ; the prolongation of the upper and lower jaws ; the small facial angle ; the flatness of the forehead and of the hinder part of the head ; the short, broad, and flat nose ; and the thick projecting lips.
The negro race is generally regarded as comprehending the native inhabitants of Sudan, Senegambia, and the region southward to the vicinity of the equator and the great lakes, and their descendants in America and elsewhere ; in a wider sense it is used to comprise also many other tribes further south, as the Zulus and Kafirs. The word negro is often loosely applied to other dark or black-skinned races, and to mixed breeds.
As designating a “race,” it is sometimes written with a capital. Toward the south of this region Is the kyngedome of Guinea, with Senegal, Iaiofo, Gambra, and many other regions of the blacke Moores called Ethiopians or Negros, all which are watered with the river Negro, called in olde tyme Niger R. Eden. See First Three English Books on America [(ed. ArberX p. 374. H. a. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of black men or negroes: as, negro blood; negro dances.
It is often asked what Races are Negro, as the meaning of the term is not well defined. . . .The word is not a National appellation, but denotes a physical type, of which the tribes In North Guinea are the representatives. When these characteristics are not all present, the Race is not Negro, though black and woolly-haired. R. N. Oust, Mod. Langs, of Africa, p. 53.Read More
In Modern History Or the Present State of All Nations, Volume 3 By Tho…: This empire, now called Morocco from a city of that name (on the north part of it at least) was the Mauritania Tingitana of the Romans, and of denominated from the city of Tingis, now Tangier, lying on the fourth side of the Straights of Gibraltar……The province of Suz, in which I comprehend Suz. that of Tafilet, is bounded by Morocco, on the north ; by Biledulgerid, on the east and south j’ and by the Atlantic ocean, on the west: The chief towns whereof are, Taradant and Tafilet ; the former the capital of Suz, and the other of the province of Tafilet…….The rest of the towns men tion’d in the province of Suz are, Messa Guargesen, Tejeat, Garet, Tagovost, Tedsi, Santa Cruz (a sea-port) and like : But the only town travellers mention in Tafilet, is the capital of the fame name, situated in latitude 26 and a half, longitude 2 de grees west of London……
The present imperial family came from the province of Tafilet; Muley Ismael, the late Emperor, was of that country ; which, lying the farthest south of any the territories belonging to this empire, and his mother being a Negroe, the complexion of the royal family is exceeding dark; for the inhabitants complexion of this empire differ much in their complexion the natives according to their situation ; those to the south ward are very tawny, as are also the Arabs, who range about the plains, and live in tents like the Arabs of Asia ; the Moors and Jews, who live in towns and on the sea-coast, are many of them fair; # and those that inhabit the villages on the mountains, are not of so dark a complexion as the Arabs………..
As to the Blacks, that of late years have had the administration of the Government, and compose their best cavalry, these being brought from Negroe- ‘ land, or descended from parents who came from thence, differ very little from the Guinea Negroes.
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