Moorish Europe By Aylmer Von Fleischer Tells Us Dwellers of Arabia Were Black

“In 711 A.D., the Black Moors and others sailed across the straits of Gibraltar and invaded Europe. They stayed in Iberia for centuries. Although they could be brutal at times, their efforts helped lift Europe out of the ‘Dark Ages’ and ushered in the Renaissance. In 705, al Khina was defeated and killed. Her defeat was feasible only because of the lack of unity among the various black groups. In any case, her death was a terrible blow to Africans. Hassan Bin Numans successor, Musa ibn Nusair, completed the conquest of North Africa, including Morocco, with the exception of Ceuta. Among those African chiefs who converted to Islam was one Tarik, later governor of Mauritania. He had fought valiantly against the Arabs before his capture and conversion to Islam in order to preserve his life ad still maintain his position as general. A great warrior, he was to play a prominent role in the Moorish conquest of Spain.” See Moorish Europe By Aylmer von Fleische

The Moors were by no means the first Blacks to have invaded Europe. In addition to the Grimaldi Man, known to have entered Europe in prehistoric times, around 700 B.C. the Nubian, Taharka, then a general and not yet king, invaded Spain where he was known as Tarraco., Al Makkary in his work, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, recounted how Spain was once hit by a terrible drought. That was over 3,000 years ago. Later, on, Africans who had staged an abortive revolution were expelled and left for Spain, settling at modern day Cadiz under the leadership of Batrikus, his Latin name. His African name is unknown. Everywhere they went they set up civilizations, staying and ruling Spain for over a century before being uprooted by the Romans. During the fifth century, the Romans began to lose Spain to the ‘barbarian’ tribes such as the Alans, Suev and Vandals who occupant the North, Southern and Western parts of the country. By the end of the seventh century, the Visigoths had extended their rule all over the Iberian Peninsula.” See Moorish Europe By Aylmer von Fleische

“The earliest of dwellers of Arabia were themselves black, referred to by various names such as Kushites, Adites, Thamudites or Vedoids. With the encroachment of Whites and Asiatics, known as The Red Race to the Arabian Peninsula, the original black inhabitants were pushed back to the south western arts Oman, Yemen and Hadramaut, known as Arabia Felix or Hay Arabia. Black Dynasties in early Arabia included those of the Mineans, the Sabeans and the Himyarites. Himyar was a descendant of Cush through Seba. The relationship between The Red Races, of the North and the black Arabians was tenuous at best.”

“However, the inevitable amalgamation occurred between the different races in the peninsula. Mohammed’s ethnic group, the Koreysh, claimed to be descendants of Ishmael through Hagar. A carving of a huge head near Medina with unmistakable African features is widely believed to be that of Ishmael. The black Koreysh ethnic group itself is said to be a branch of one of the oldest dynasties of Arabia, the Kinana. A major division into two ethnic groups later occurred, and the lateral branch of the family is said to have  the Koreysh, claimed to be descendants of Ishmael through Hagar. A carving of a huge head near Mediina with unmistakable African features is widely believed to be that of Ishmael.  See Moorish Europe By Aylmer von Fleische The black Koreysh ethnic group itself is said to be a branch of one of the oldest dynasties of Arabia, the Kinana. A major division int two ethnic groups later occurred, and the lateral branch of the family tree is said, to have mixed with “The Red Race,” creating in effect the Abid Shem family, ancestors of the Harb, the Abu Sofian, the Muawiya and the great Ummayyah family.”

“Despite all the mixture, it is clear tht eh dusky skin was still much in evidence among the Ummayades. The historian, Toynbee, has said: “The Primitive Arabs who were the ruling element of the Umayyad Caliphate called themselves ‘the swarthy people’ with a connotation of racial superiority and their Persian and Turkish subjects ‘the ruddy people’ with a connotation of racial inferiority. Black Africans have left their mark on the early history of the Arabian Peninsula.” See Moorish Europe By Aylmer von Fleische In Dr. Wesley Muhammad, PhD’s article “Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?”  he gave the following excerpts from, Black Arabia and The African Origin of Islam (2009).”    Click Here 

“In his work, Islam’s Black Legacy: Some Leading Figures (1993), Mohammed Abu-Bakr includes among 62 leading Black figures of Islam the Prophet Muhammad himself. Abu-Bakr rightly notes: According to Muslim tradition, Prophet Muhammad descended in a straight line from Ishmael’s second son Kedar (Arabic: Qaidar), whose name in Hebrew signifies ‘black’…From the sons of Kedar inhabiting the northern Arabian desert, sprang the noblest tribe in Arabia, the Koreish (Quraish), the tribe from which Prophet Muhammad descended.” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?

“As we have also discussed above, the Arabian Qedar were a black tribe akin to the equally black Nabateans, and these two were in someway related to the Quraish, the black tribe par excellenceof ancient Makka. As Robert F. Spencer remarks: “It is said that the Quraish explained their short stature and dark skin by the fact that they always carefully adhered to endogamy.” al-Jahiz (d. 869), the important Afro-Iraqi scholar of ninth century Baghdad, noted in his KitabFakhr al-Sudan ala al-biyadan  (The Boast of the Blacks over the Whites): The ten lordly sons of Abd al-Mutalib were deep black (dalham) in colour and big/tall (dukhm).  When Amir b. al-Tufayl saw them circumambulating (the Kaaba) like dark camels, he said, “With such men as these is the custody of the Kaaba preserved.” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?

“Abd Allah ibn Abbas was very black and tall. Those of Abu Talibs’s family, who are the most noble of men, are dark skinned, black and tall (sud).”   This report is important for our discussion, not only because Abd al-Mutalib and his ten black sons were pure Arabs, but also because they are also the family of the Prophet, Abd al-Mutalibbeing his paternal grandfather. The Syrian scholar and historian al-Dhahabī (d. 1348) too reported that Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Prophet Muhammad’s first cousin, and his son, Alī ibn AbdAllah, were “very dark-skinned.” Alī ibn Abu Talib, first cousin of the Prophet and future fourth caliph, is described by al-Suyuti and others as “husky, bald…pot-bellied, large-bearded…and jet-black (shadīd al-udma).” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?

“Ali’s son, Abu Jaffa , according to Bin Sad’s (d. 845), described Ali thusly: “He was a black-skinned man with big, heavy eyes, pot-bellied, bald, and kind of short.” This convergence of blackness, nobility and Quraishī ethnicity is further demonstrated in these lines attributed to the seventh century CE Quraishī poet, al-Fadl ibn al-Abbas, called al-Akhdar al-Lahabi “The Flaming Black”. Al-Fadl is the Prophet Prophet Muhammad’s first cousin and he said: “I am the black skinned one (al-Akhdar). I am well-known. My complexion is black. I am from the noble house of the Arabs.” Ibn Manzour (d. 1311) notes the opinion that al-ahkdar here means aswad al-jilda, ‘Blackskinned’, and signifies that al-Fadl is from the pure Arabs, “because the color of most of the Arabs is dark (al-udma).” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?

“Similarly Ibn Berry (d. 1193) said also: “He (al-Fadl) means by this that his genealogy is pure and that he is a pure Arab (arabi  mahd ) because Arabs describe their color as black (al-aswad).”  Thus, al-Fadl’s blackness (akhdar) is the visual mark of his pure, Quraishī background, being born of a pure Arab mother and father. The Quraish consisted of several sub-clans. Abd al-Mutalib and his descendents, including Prophet Muhammad, belonged to the Banu Hashim. Henry Lammens takes notice of “les Haśhimites, famille où dominait le sang nègre” (“the Hashimites, the family where Black blood dominated”).” See Moorish Europe By Aylmer von Fleische “Lammens remarks that they are  généralement qualifies de آدم = couleur foncée” (“generally described as adam =dark colored”).” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?

“But the Banu Hashim were not the only sub-clans noted for their blackness. The Banu Zuhra, the tribe from which the prophet’s mother, Amina bint Wahab, hailed, was likewise noted for its blackness. See for example the famous Saad ibn Abī Waqqās ( 646), cousin of Amina and uncle of Prophet Muhammad. He is described as very dark, tall and flat-nosed. Prophet Muhammad, it should be noted, was quite proud of his uncle Saad whose military contributions we shall discuss below. We are told that once Prophet Muhammad was sitting with some of his companions and Saad walked by. The prophet stopped and taunted: “That’s my uncle. Let any man show me his uncle.” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?

“This blackness of the Quraish tribe is not insignificant to the religious history of Islam. The Quraish were the custodians of the cult of the Kaaba in pre-Quranic Makka and at religious ceremonies they would declare nahnu ahlu Allah (“We are the People of Allah”) and throughoutArabia they were known as ahlu Allah, the People of Allah. In other words, the black tribe par excellence was also the Allah-tribe par excellence and custodians of the cult of the Black Stone. Nevertheless, or rather as a consequence, Prophet Muhammad’s greatest struggle was with his own kinsmen, this black, Allah-venerating Quraish tribe. In the end, however, it would be the black Quraish that became the foundation of Islam in its inception, at least in the short term. Not only were the Sunni caliphs drawn from them, but the Shiite Imams, descendents of the black Alī ibn Abu Talib, were likewise black Quraishi Arabs.”  See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?


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The International Law of Discovery, Indigenous Peoples



The Doctrine of Discovery is one of the earliest examples of classical international law—that is, the accepted legal norms and principles that control conduct between different states. The Doctrine was developed to regulate European countries’ actions and conflicts over exploration, trade, and colonization of non-European countries and was used to justify the domination of non-Christian, non-European peoples. The Doctrine was developed in Europe over several centuries primarily by the Catholic Church, Spain, Portugal, England, and the other colonial powers. There were two bases for the Doctrine: (1) the alleged authority of the Christian God and (2) the ethnocentric idea that Europeans had the power and the justification to claim the lands and rights of indigenous peoples around the world and to exercise dominion over them.

Scholars have traced the expansion of European rule and culture, and especially the Doctrine, to early medieval times, and in particular to the Crusades to recover the Holy Lands during the years 1096–1271. In addition to other justifications for the Crusades, the Church and various popes established the idea of a universal papal jurisdiction, which “vested a legal responsibility in the [P]ope to realize the vision of the universal Christian commonwealth.” This papal responsibility, along with the idea of a “just war,” offered support for Christian-led “holy wars” against infidels and was especially apparent in the Crusades.


In 1240, Pope Innocent IV, a canon lawyer, wrote a legal commentary on the rights of non-Christian peoples. His work influenced both the development of the Discovery Doctrine and the writings of Francisco de Vitoria and Hugo Grotius, famous sixteenth and seventeenth century legal theorists. In his commentary on a papal decree from 1209, Pope Innocent IV asked whether it was “licit to invade a land that infidels possess or which belongs to them?” Innocent ultimately answered “yes,” because such invasions were “just” wars, fought for the “defense” of Christians and for the re-conquest of Christian lands. In answering this question, Innocent focused on the authority of Christians to legitimately dispossess pagans of their dominium—their sovereignty, lordship, and property rights.

He conceded that pagans had some natural law rights and that Christians had to recognize the right of infidels to own property and govern themselves. Yet, he also held that the non-Christian’s natural law rights were qualified by the papacy’s divine mandate. Because the Pope was entrusted with the spiritual health of all humans, the Pope also had a voice in the secular affairs of all humans. Of course, a “pope can order infidels to admit preachers of the Gospel . . . [and if they do not] they sin and so they ought to be punished . . . and war may be declared against them by the Pope and not by anyone else.” Consequently, the Pope was duty-bound to intervene in the secular affairs of infidels if they violated natural law, as defined by Europeans, or if they prevented the preaching of the gospel.

urban_ii_croppedIn discussing the invasion of non-Christian countries to “defend” the faith, Pope Innocent IV borrowed from the writings of Saint Augustine, a fifth century scholar, and from earlier popes. Augustine had written that it was proper for Christians to re-conquer lands which had been seized by infidels. In addition, he claimed that Christians had the right to invade nations which practiced cannibalism, sodomy, idolatry, and human sacrifice, reasoning that such wars were a defense of Christianity, to “acquire peace,” and thus, were “work[s] of justice.” Pope Innocent IV also found support for holy wars in papal actions nearly two centuries earlier. Immediately preceding the official start of the Crusades, Archdeacon Hildebrand—later Pope Gregory VII, 1073–1085—negotiated a papal treaty with a French Count to fight a holy war against the Muslims in Spain.

moorsinspainMoreover, Pope Urban II, 1088–1099, granted Spanish crusaders the same papal indulgences that were granted for making pilgrimages to Jerusalem.47 Urban thereafter issued the first call for crusades to the holy lands in 1095, and he continued to link crusades with pilgrimages by granting indulgences for crusaders, just as he had done for participants in the holy war with the Moors. WILLIAMS, supra note 4, at 34–37. See generally ERDMANN, supra note 28, at 306–54  Poland’s position, however, was the same as Pope Innocent IV in 1240: infidels possessed the same natural law rights as Christians, and, therefore, their lands could only be invaded to punish violations of natural law and to facilitate the preaching of the gospel.54 The Council accepted Poland’s argument.55 Future crusades, discoveries, and conquests of heathens would have to proceed in accordance with the emerging legal standards of European Christianity.

The Council of Constance was called in 1414 to settle three major disputes, including the Knights’ claim to Lithuania. The Knights argued (1) that their territorial and jurisdictional claims could be traced to papal bulls from the Crusading era, which had authorized the complete confiscation of the property and sovereignty of non-Christians; and (2) that infidels lacked dominium and therefore were subject to Christian control. These standards supported the idea that pagans had natural rights, but that they also had to comply with European concepts of natural law or risk being conquered. Thus, the Council of Constance formally defined the Doctrine of Discovery. The Church, and secular Christian princes, had to respect the natural-law rights of pagans to own property and to govern themselves, but not if they strayed too far from European normative views.

To Read Moor Click Here The International Law of Discovery, Indigenous Peoples, and Chile Robert J. Miller Lewis & Clark Law School, Portland, Oregon

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England And The Discovery Of America, 1481-1620

2228330691The narrative is familiar; the Cabot voyages, the grace of Shadowy ventures in Henry VIII’s reign, and of course the Elizabethan experiments. There are chapters “Sailor and the Sea in the Elizabethan England” and “England and the St. Lawrence, 1577-1502,” which last records many hitherto obscure ventures….”There he freed some 200 Moors and Negroes from among the galley slaves (offering to bring the Moors back to their own country). “Many negroes belonging to private persons” we are told “went with them of their own free will,” and though their owners offered to buy them back, “the English would not give them up except when the….” Click Here for BOOK REVIEWS to Read Moor: See England and the discovery of America, 1481-1620: from the Bristol v…

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The Mohammedan Africans Remain Of The Old Stock Of Slave Imports


The Moral and Religious Condition of the Slave Negro Population. Ignorance of the doctrines and duties of Christianity is prevalent among the Negroes. Their notions of the Supreme Being; of the character and offices of Christ and of the Holy Ghost; of a future state; and of what constitutes holiness of life, are indefinite and confused. Some brought up in a Christian land, and in the vicinity of the house of God, have heard of Jesus Christ; but who he is, and what he has done for a ruined world, they cannot tell. The Mohammedan Africans remaining of the old stock of importations, although accustomed to hear the Gospel preached, have been known to accommodate Christianity to Mohammedanism. “God,” say they, “is Allah, and Jesus Christ is Mohammed–the religion is the same, but different countries have different names.”







Such being the state of affairs, we ought not to anticipate any remarkable degree of attention, to the religious instruction of the Negroes, within the Colonies, as an independent class of population. Especially too, as the effect of the slave trade, during its existence, was to harden the feelings against the unfortunate subjects of it, while their degraded and miserable appearance and character, their stupidity, their uncouth languages and gross superstitions, and their constant occupation, operated as so many checks to benevolent efforts for their conversion to Christianity. And thus, those who advocated the slave-trade on the ground that it introduced the Negroes to the blessings of civilization and the Gospel, saw their favorite argument losing its force, in great measure, from year to year.

 See The Religious Instruction of the Negroes. In the United States: Jones, Charles Colcock, 1804-1863

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Moor Also Applied To Natives of Hispaniola [Haiti and Dominican Republic]

51pudsbaorl-_sx327_bo1204203200_In 1872 two men began work on a lexicon of words of Asian origin used by the British in India. Since its publication the 1,000-page dictionary has never been out of print and a new edition is due out next year. What accounts for its enduring appeal? Hobson-Jobson is the dictionary’s short and mysterious title. The subtitle reveals more: “A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. By Colonel Henry Yule and AC Burnell.” When the book was published, it was already a source of nostalgia for the passing of the East India Company era as India came under British rule. “It does include a lot of administrative terms – things that the British needed to know. But it was also clearly meant for diversion and entertainment, both for the British serving in India and the British when they had returned home.”

The word Hobson-Jobson itself is one of these. Poet Daljit Nagra revels in this extraordinary word horde in Hobson-Jobson: A Very English Enterprise  “My friend Major John Trotter tells me that he has repeatedly heard this phrase used by British soldiers in the Punjab. It is in fact an Anglo-Saxon version of the wailings of the Mahommedans as they beat their breasts in the procession of the Moharram – ‘Ya Hasan! Ya Hosain!'”   Nagra says this is exactly what he loves about Hobson-Jobson.

“That it now feels like a benign project of Victorian multiculturalism, where words from Hindi, Malay, Arabic and even Chinese can cohabit and intermingle with English words – words that have themselves been remade by rubbing alongside their new neighbours.”

In his introduction to the book, Yule writes that words of Indian origin have been “insinuating themselves into English ever since the end of the reign of Elizabeth and the beginning of that of King James”. Eccentric, entertaining, full of curious detail, the dictionary is nonetheless very much of its time. Teltscher notes “an almost innate sense of British cultural superiority” running through the book. See Hobson-Jobson: The words English owes to India By Mukti Jain Campio…


As to the term Moor, the Dictionary provides the following: MOOR, MOORMAN, s. (and adj. MOORISH ). A Mahommedan; and so from the habitual use of the term (Mouro), by the Portuguese in India, particularly a Mahommedan inhabitant of India. In the Middle Ages, to Europe generally, the Mahommedans were known as the Saracens. This is the word always used by Joinville, and by Marco Polo. Ibn Batuta also mentions the fact in a curious passage (ii. 425-6). At a later day, when the fear of the  Ottoman had made itself felt in Europe, the word Turk was that which identified itself with the Moslem, and thus we have in the Collect for Good Friday, — “Jews, Turks, lnfidels, and Heretics.” But to the Spaniards and Portuguese, whose contact was with the Musulmans of Mauritania who had passed over and conquered the Peninsula, all Mahommedans were Moors. So the Mahommedans whom the Portuguese met with on their voyages to India, on what coast soever, were alike styled Mouros; and from the Portuguese the use of this term, as synonymous with Mahommedan, passed to Hollanders and Englishmen.


The word then, as used by the Portuguese discoverers, referred to religion, and implied no nationality. It is plain indeed from many passages that the Moors of Calicut and Cochin were in the beginning of the 16th century people of mixt race, just as the Moplahs (q.v.) are now. The Arab, or Arabo-African occupants of Mozambique and Melinda, the Sumālis of Magadoxo, the Arabs and Persians of Kalhāt and Ormuz, the Boras of Guzerat, are all Mouros to the Portuguese writers, though the more intelligent among these are quite conscious of the impropriety of the term. The Moors of the Malabar coast were middlemen, who had adopted a profession of Islam for their own convenience, and in order to minister for their own profit to the constant traffic of merchants from Ormuz and the Arabian ports. Similar influences still affect the boatmen of the same coast, among whom it has become a sort of custom in certain families, that different members should profess respectively Mahommedanism, Hinduism, and Christianity. The use of the word Moor for Ma- hommedan died out pretty well among educated Europeans in the Bengal Presidency in the beginning of the last century, or even earlier, but probably held its ground a good deal longer among the British soldiery, whilst the adjective Moorish will be found in our quotations nearly as late as 1840. In Ceylon, the Straits, and the Dutch Colonies, the term Moorman for a Musalman is still in common use. Indeed the word is still employed by the servants of Madras officers in speaking of Mahommedans, or of a certain clàss of these. Moro is still applied at Manilla to the Musulman Malays.

  1. — “. . . the Moorsnever came to the house when this trading went on, and we became aware that they wished us ill, insomuch that when any of us went ashore, in order to annoy us they would spit on the ground, and say ‘Portugal, Portugal.'”-<-> Roteiro de V. da Gama, p. 75.

” “For you must know, gentlemen, that from the moment you put into port here (Calecut) you caused disturbance of mind to the Moors of this city, who are numerous and very powerful in the country.” —Correa, Hak. Soc. 166.

  1. — “We reached a very large island called Sumatra, where pepper grows in considerable quantities. . . . The Chief is a Moor, but speaking a different language.”-<-> Santo Stefano, in India in the X Vth Cent.[7].
  2. — “Adì 28 zugno vene in Venetia insieme co Sier Alvixe de Boni un sclav moroel qual portorono i spagnoli da la insula spagniola.” — Museo Civico at Venice. Here the term Moor is applied to a native of Hispaniola!
  3. — “Hanc (Malaccam) rex Maurusgubernabat.” — Emanuelis Regis Epistola, f. 1
  1. — “And for the hatred in which they hold them, and for their abhorrence of the name of Frangue, they call in reproach the Christians of our parts of the world Frangues(see FIRINGHEE), just as we improperly call themagain Moors.” — Barros, IV. iv. 16.
  2. 1560. — “When we lay at Fuquien, we did see certain Moores, who knew so little of their secte that they could say nothing else but that Mahomet was a Moore, my father was a Moore, and I am aMoore.”-<-> Reports of the Province of China, done into English by R. Willes, in Hakl.ii. 557.
  3. — “And as to what you say of Ludovico Vartomano, I have spoken both here and in Portugal, with people who knew him here in India, and they told me that he went about here in the garb of a Moor, and that he came back among us doing penance for his sins; and that the man never went further than Calecut and Cochin, nor indeed did we at that time navigate those seas that we now navigate.” — Garcia, f. 30.
  4. — “. . . always whereas I have spoken of Gentiles is to be understood Idolaters, and whereas I speak of Moores, I mean Mahomets secte.” — Caesar Frederike, in Hakl.ii. 359.
  5. — “The King was fled for feare of the King of Makasar, who . . . would force the King to turne Moore, for he is a Gentile.” — Midleton, in Purchas, i. 239.
  6. — “Les Moresdu pay faisoiẽt courir le bruict, que les notres avoient esté battus.” — Wytfliet, H. des Indes, iii. 9.
  7. — “King Jangier (Jehāngīr) used to make use of a reproach: That one Portugees


  1. BANDICOOT : (page 58)

cats. In fact, these latter animals run away from them, and can’t stand against them, for they would get the worst of it. So they are only caught by stratagem. I have seen these rats at Dwaigīr, and much amazed I was!”– Ibn Batuta, iv. 47. Fryer seems to exaggerate worse than the Moor: 1673.– “For Vermin, the strongest huge Rats as big as our Pigs, which burrow under the Houses, and are bold enough to venture on Poultry.”– Fryer, 116. The following surprisingly confounds two entirely different animals: 1789.– “The Bandicoot, or musk

  1. BENGAL : (page 85)

deals in fiction– a thing clear from internal evidence, and expressly alleged, by the judicious Garcia de Orta: “As to what you say of Ludovico Vartomano, I have spoken, both here and in Portugal, with men who knew him here in India, and they told me that he went about here in the garb of a Moor, and then reverted to us, doing penance for his sins; and that the man never went further than Calecut and Cochin.”– Colloquios, f. 30. c. 1250.– “Muhammad Bakhtiyár… returned to Behár. Great fear of him prevailed in the minds of the infidels of the territories of

  1. BENGAL : (page 85)

Bangāla mi rawad.” Hāfiz. i.e., “Sugar nibbling are all the parrots of Ind From this Persian candy that travels to Bengal” (viz. his own poems). 1498.– “Bemgala: in this Kingdom are many Moors, and few Christians, and the King is a Moor… in this land are many cotton cloths, and silk cloths, and much silver; it is 40 days with a fair wind from Calicut.”– Roteiro de V. da Gama, 2nd ed. p. 110. 1506.– “A Banzelo, el suo Re è Moro, e li se fa el forzo de’ panni de gotton…”-<-> Leonardo do Ca’

  1. BENGAL : (page 86)

the city of Banghella… one of the best that I had hitherto seen.”– Varthema, 210. 1516.– “… the Kingdom of Bengala, in which there are many towns…. Those of the interior are inhabited by Gentiles subject to the King of Bengala, who is a Moor; and the seaports are inhabited by Moors and Gentiles, amongst whom there is much trade and much shipping to many parts, because this sea is a gulf… and at its inner extremity there is a very great city inhabited by Moors, which is called Bengala, with a very good harbour.” —

  1. CASIS, CAXIS, CACIZ : (page 169)
  2. ii. 1. [1553.– See quotation from Barrosunder LAR . [1554.– “Who was a Caciz of the Moors, which means in Portuguese an ecclesiastic.” — Castañeda, Bk. I. ch. 7.] 1561.– “The King sent off theMoor, and with him his Casis, an old man of much authority, who was the principal priest of his Mosque.”– Correa, by Ld. Stanley, 113. 1567.– “… The Holy Synod declares it necessary to remove from the territories of His Highness all the infidels whose office it
  3. COIR : (page 234)

(Alboquerque)… in Cananor devoted much care to the preparation of cables and rigging for the whole fleet, for what they had was all rotten from the rains in Goa River; ordering that all should be made of coir (cairo), of which there was great abundance in Cananor; because a Moor called Mamalle, a chief trader there, held the whole trade of the Maldive islands by a contract with the kings of the isles… so that this Moor came to be called the Lord of the Maldives, and that all the coir that was used throughout India had to be bought from the hands of this

  1. COIR : (page 234)

from the rains in Goa River; ordering that all should be made of coir (cairo), of which there was great abundance in Cananor; because a Moor called Mamalle, a chief trader there, held the whole trade of the Maldive islands by a contract with the kings of the isles… so that this Moor came to be called the Lord of the Maldives, and that all the coir that was used throughout India had to be bought from the hands of this Moor…. The Governor, learning this, sent for the said Moor, and ordered him to abandon this island trade and to recall his factors…. The

  1. COIR : (page 234)

a Moor called Mamalle, a chief trader there, held the whole trade of the Maldive islands by a contract with the kings of the isles… so that this Moor came to be called the Lord of the Maldives, and that all the coir that was used throughout India had to be bought from the hands of this Moor…. The Governor, learning this, sent for the said Moor, and ordered him to abandon this island trade and to recall his factors…. The Moor, not to lose such a profitable business,… finally arranged with the Governor that the Isles should not be taken from him, and that he in

  1. COIR : (page 234)

trade of the Maldive islands by a contract with the kings of the isles… so that this Moor came to be called the Lord of the Maldives, and that all the coir that was used throughout India had to be bought from the hands of this Moor…. The Governor, learning this, sent for the said Moor, and ordered him to abandon this island trade and to recall his factors…. The Moor, not to lose such a profitable business,… finally arranged with the Governor that the Isles should not be taken from him, and that he in return would furnish for the king 1000 bahars (barés) of

  1. COIR : (page 234)

Moor came to be called the Lord of the Maldives, and that all the coir that was used throughout India had to be bought from the hands of this Moor…. The Governor, learning this, sent for the said Moor, and ordered him to abandon this island trade and to recall his factors…. The Moor, not to lose such a profitable business,… finally arranged with the Governor that the Isles should not be taken from him, and that he in return would furnish for the king 1000 bahars (barés) of coarse coir, and 1000 more of fine coir, each bahar weighing 4½

  1. COLOMBO : (page 236)

the Moors. … There were not 40 men in all, whole and sound for battle. And one brave man made a cross on the tip of a cane, which he set in front for standard, saying that God was his Captain, and that was his Flag, under which they should march deliberately against Columbo, where the Moor was with his forces.”– Correa, ii. 521. 1553.– “The King, Don Manuel, because… he knew… that the King of Columbo, who was the true Lord of the Cinnamon, desired to possess our peace and friendship, wrote to the said Affonso d’Alboquerque, who

  1. CONSUMAH, KHANSAMA : (page 247)

occurs in Elliot, vii. 153. The Anglo-Indian form Consumer seems to have been not uncommon in the 18th century, probably with a spice of intention. From tables quoted in Long, 182, and in Seton-Karr, i. 95, 107, we see that the wages of a “Consumah, Christian, Moor, or Gentoo,” were at Calcutta, in 1759, 5 rupees a month, and in 1785, 8 to 10 rupees. [1609.– “Emersee Nooherdee being called by the Cauncamma.” — Danvers, Letters, i. 24.] c. 1664. — “Some time after… she chose for her Kane-saman, that is, her

  1. DECCAN : (page 301)
  2. 258.] 1616.– “… his son Sultan Coron, who he designed, should, should command in Deccan.”-<-> Sir T. Roe.[” “There is a resolution taken that Sultan Caronne shall go to the Decan Warres.”– Ibid.Hak. Soc. i. 192. [1623.– “A Moor of Dacàn.”– P. della Valle, Hak. Soc. ii. 225.] 1667.- “But such as at this day, to Indians known, In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms.” Paradise Lost, ix. [1102-3]. 1726.– “Decan [as a division] includes Decan,
  3. GENTOO : (page 367)

GENTOO , s. and adj. This word is a corruption of the Portuguese Gentio, ‘a gentile’ or heathen, which they applied to the Hindus in contradistinction to the Moros or ‘Moors,’ i.e. Mahommedans. [SeeMOOR .] Both terms are now obsolete among English people, except perhaps that Gentoo still lingers at Madras in the sense b; for the terms Gentio and Gentoo were applied in two senses: a. To the Hindūs generally. b. To the

  1. GENTOO : (page 367)

their language the Gentile language. Besides these two specific senses, Gentio was sometimes used for heathen in general. Thus in F. M. Pinto: “A very famous Corsair who was called Hinimilau, a Chinese by nation, and who from a Gentio as he was, had a little time since turned Moor….”– Ch. L. a.- 1548.– “The Religiosos of this territory spend so largely, and give such great alms at the cost of your Highness’s administration that it disposes of a good part of the funds. … I believe indeed they do all this in real zeal and

  1. LAR : (page 505)

pay to this day to a mosque which that Caciz (see CASIS ) had made in a district called Hongez of Sheikh Doniar, adjoining the city of Lara, distant from Ormuz over 40 leagues.”– Barros, II. ii. 2. 1602.– “This man was a Moor, a native of the Kingdom of Lara, adjoining that of Ormuz: his proper name was Cufo, but as he was a native of the Kingdom of Lara he took a surname from the country, and called himself Cufo Larym.”– Couto, IV. vii. 6. 1622.– “Lar, as I said

  1. LUGOW, TO : (page 524)

spread, fasten, connect, plaster, put to work, employ, engage, use, impute, report anything in the way of scandal or malice”<-> in which long list he has omitted one of the most common uses of the verb, in its Anglo-Indian form lugow, which is “to lay a boat alongside the shore or wharf, to moor.” The fact is that lagānā is the active form of the neuter verb lag-nā, ‘to touch, lie, to be in contact with,’ and used in all the neuter senses of which lagāṅā expresses the transitive senses. Besides neuter lagnā, active lagānā, we have a

  1. MACE : (page 530)

value being denominated in like manner candareen (q.v.). The word is originally Skt. māsha, ‘a bean,’ and then ‘a particular weight of gold’ (comp. CARAT, RUTTEE ). 1539.– “… by intervention of this thirdsman whom the Moor employed as broker they agreed on my price with the merchant at seven mazes of gold, which in our money makes a 1400 reys, at the rate of a half cruzado the maz.”– Pinto, cap. xxv. Cogan has, “the fishermen sold me to the merchant for seven mazes of gold, which

  1. MALACCA : (page 544)

Frazala ) of it to make a crusado. Here too are many large parrots all red like fire.”– Roteiro de V. da Gama, 110-111. 1510.– “When we had arrived at the city of Melacha, we were immediately presented to the Sultan, who is a Moor… I believe that more ships arrive here than in any other place in the world….”– Varthema, 224. 1511.– “This Paremiçura gave the name of Malaca to the new colony, because in the language of Java, when a man of Palimbão flees away they call him

  1. MALUM : (page 548)

and conduct them,” &c.– Roteiro do Mar Roxo, &c., 35. The Island retains its name, and is mentioned as Pilot Island by Capt. Haines in J. R. Geog. Soc. ix. 126. It lies about 1½ m. due east of Perim. 1553.– “… among whom (at Melinda) came a Moor, a Guzarate by nation, called Malem Cana, who, as much for the satisfaction he had in conversing with our people, as to please the King, who was inquiring for a pilot to give them, agreed to accompany them.”– Barros, I. iv. 6. c. 1590.– “Mu’allim or Captain. He

  1. MANGROVE : (page 557)

certain trees, lofty, dense and green, which grow in the very sea-water, and which they call mangle.”-<-> Ibid. f. 224. 1553.– “…. by advice of a Moorish pilot, who promised to take the people by night to a place where water could be got… and either because the Moor desired to land many times on the shore by which he was conducting them, seeking to get away from the hands of those whom he was conducting, or because he was really perplext by its being night, and in the middle of a great growth of mangrove (mangues) he never

  1. MOGUL, THE GREAT : (page 572)

in Ramusio, iii. 1572.- “A este o Rei Cambayco soberbissimo Fortaleza darà na rica Dio; Porque contra o Mogor poderosissimo Lhe ajude a defender o senhorio….” Camões, x. 64. By Burton: “To him Cambaya’s King, that haughtiest Moor, shall yield in wealthy Diu the famous fort that he may gain against the Grand Mogor ‘spite his stupendous power, your firm support….” [1609.– “When you shall repair to the Greate Magull.” — Birdwood, First Letter Book, 325. [1612.–

Seee Hobson-Jobson: Being a Glossary of Anglo-Indian Colloquial Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms: Etymological, Historical, Geographical, and Discursive Sir Henry Yule Arthur Coke Burnell – January 1, 1886 London : J. Murray – Publisher pg. 446


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