“In 711 A.D., the Black Moors and others sailed across the straits of Gibraltar and invaded Europe. They stayed in Iberia for centuries. Although they could be brutal at times, their efforts helped lift Europe out of the ‘Dark Ages’ and ushered in the Renaissance. In 705, al Khina was defeated and killed. Her defeat was feasible only because of the lack of unity among the various black groups. In any case, her death was a terrible blow to Africans. Hassan Bin Numans successor, Musa ibn Nusair, completed the conquest of North Africa, including Morocco, with the exception of Ceuta. Among those African chiefs who converted to Islam was one Tarik, later governor of Mauritania. He had fought valiantly against the Arabs before his capture and conversion to Islam in order to preserve his life ad still maintain his position as general. A great warrior, he was to play a prominent role in the Moorish conquest of Spain.” See Moorish Europe By Aylmer von Fleische
The Moors were by no means the first Blacks to have invaded Europe. In addition to the Grimaldi Man, known to have entered Europe in prehistoric times, around 700 B.C. the Nubian, Taharka, then a general and not yet king, invaded Spain where he was known as Tarraco., Al Makkary in his work, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, recounted how Spain was once hit by a terrible drought. That was over 3,000 years ago. Later, on, Africans who had staged an abortive revolution were expelled and left for Spain, settling at modern day Cadiz under the leadership of Batrikus, his Latin name. His African name is unknown. Everywhere they went they set up civilizations, staying and ruling Spain for over a century before being uprooted by the Romans. During the fifth century, the Romans began to lose Spain to the ‘barbarian’ tribes such as the Alans, Suev and Vandals who occupant the North, Southern and Western parts of the country. By the end of the seventh century, the Visigoths had extended their rule all over the Iberian Peninsula.” See Moorish Europe By Aylmer von Fleische
“The earliest of dwellers of Arabia were themselves black, referred to by various names such as Kushites, Adites, Thamudites or Vedoids. With the encroachment of Whites and Asiatics, known as The Red Race to the Arabian Peninsula, the original black inhabitants were pushed back to the south western arts Oman, Yemen and Hadramaut, known as Arabia Felix or Hay Arabia. Black Dynasties in early Arabia included those of the Mineans, the Sabeans and the Himyarites. Himyar was a descendant of Cush through Seba. The relationship between The Red Races, of the North and the black Arabians was tenuous at best.”
“However, the inevitable amalgamation occurred between the different races in the peninsula. Mohammed’s ethnic group, the Koreysh, claimed to be descendants of Ishmael through Hagar. A carving of a huge head near Medina with unmistakable African features is widely believed to be that of Ishmael. The black Koreysh ethnic group itself is said to be a branch of one of the oldest dynasties of Arabia, the Kinana. A major division into two ethnic groups later occurred, and the lateral branch of the family is said to have the Koreysh, claimed to be descendants of Ishmael through Hagar. A carving of a huge head near Mediina with unmistakable African features is widely believed to be that of Ishmael. See Moorish Europe By Aylmer von Fleische The black Koreysh ethnic group itself is said to be a branch of one of the oldest dynasties of Arabia, the Kinana. A major division int two ethnic groups later occurred, and the lateral branch of the family tree is said, to have mixed with “The Red Race,” creating in effect the Abid Shem family, ancestors of the Harb, the Abu Sofian, the Muawiya and the great Ummayyah family.”
“Despite all the mixture, it is clear tht eh dusky skin was still much in evidence among the Ummayades. The historian, Toynbee, has said: “The Primitive Arabs who were the ruling element of the Umayyad Caliphate called themselves ‘the swarthy people’ with a connotation of racial superiority and their Persian and Turkish subjects ‘the ruddy people’ with a connotation of racial inferiority. Black Africans have left their mark on the early history of the Arabian Peninsula.” See Moorish Europe By Aylmer von Fleische In Dr. Wesley Muhammad, PhD’s article “Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?” he gave the following excerpts from, Black Arabia and The African Origin of Islam (2009).” Click Here
“In his work, Islam’s Black Legacy: Some Leading Figures (1993), Mohammed Abu-Bakr includes among 62 leading Black figures of Islam the Prophet Muhammad himself. Abu-Bakr rightly notes: According to Muslim tradition, Prophet Muhammad descended in a straight line from Ishmael’s second son Kedar (Arabic: Qaidar), whose name in Hebrew signifies ‘black’…From the sons of Kedar inhabiting the northern Arabian desert, sprang the noblest tribe in Arabia, the Koreish (Quraish), the tribe from which Prophet Muhammad descended.” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?”
“As we have also discussed above, the Arabian Qedar were a black tribe akin to the equally black Nabateans, and these two were in someway related to the Quraish, the black tribe par excellenceof ancient Makka. As Robert F. Spencer remarks: “It is said that the Quraish explained their short stature and dark skin by the fact that they always carefully adhered to endogamy.” al-Jahiz (d. 869), the important Afro-Iraqi scholar of ninth century Baghdad, noted in his KitabFakhr al-Sudan ala al-biyadan (The Boast of the Blacks over the Whites): The ten lordly sons of Abd al-Mutalib were deep black (dalham) in colour and big/tall (dukhm). When Amir b. al-Tufayl saw them circumambulating (the Kaaba) like dark camels, he said, “With such men as these is the custody of the Kaaba preserved.” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?”
“Abd Allah ibn Abbas was very black and tall. Those of Abu Talibs’s family, who are the most noble of men, are dark skinned, black and tall (sud).” This report is important for our discussion, not only because Abd al-Mutalib and his ten black sons were pure Arabs, but also because they are also the family of the Prophet, Abd al-Mutalibbeing his paternal grandfather. The Syrian scholar and historian al-Dhahabī (d. 1348) too reported that Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Prophet Muhammad’s first cousin, and his son, Alī ibn AbdAllah, were “very dark-skinned.” Alī ibn Abu Talib, first cousin of the Prophet and future fourth caliph, is described by al-Suyuti and others as “husky, bald…pot-bellied, large-bearded…and jet-black (shadīd al-udma).” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?”
“Ali’s son, Abu Jaffa , according to Bin Sad’s (d. 845), described Ali thusly: “He was a black-skinned man with big, heavy eyes, pot-bellied, bald, and kind of short.” This convergence of blackness, nobility and Quraishī ethnicity is further demonstrated in these lines attributed to the seventh century CE Quraishī poet, al-Fadl ibn al-Abbas, called al-Akhdar al-Lahabi “The Flaming Black”. Al-Fadl is the Prophet Prophet Muhammad’s first cousin and he said: “I am the black skinned one (al-Akhdar). I am well-known. My complexion is black. I am from the noble house of the Arabs.” Ibn Manzour (d. 1311) notes the opinion that al-ahkdar here means aswad al-jilda, ‘Blackskinned’, and signifies that al-Fadl is from the pure Arabs, “because the color of most of the Arabs is dark (al-udma).” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?”
“Similarly Ibn Berry (d. 1193) said also: “He (al-Fadl) means by this that his genealogy is pure and that he is a pure Arab (arabi mahd ) because Arabs describe their color as black (al-aswad).” Thus, al-Fadl’s blackness (akhdar) is the visual mark of his pure, Quraishī background, being born of a pure Arab mother and father. The Quraish consisted of several sub-clans. Abd al-Mutalib and his descendents, including Prophet Muhammad, belonged to the Banu Hashim. Henry Lammens takes notice of “les Haśhimites, famille où dominait le sang nègre” (“the Hashimites, the family where Black blood dominated”).” See Moorish Europe By Aylmer von Fleische “Lammens remarks that they are généralement qualifies de آدم = couleur foncée” (“generally described as adam =dark colored”).” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?”
“But the Banu Hashim were not the only sub-clans noted for their blackness. The Banu Zuhra, the tribe from which the prophet’s mother, Amina bint Wahab, hailed, was likewise noted for its blackness. See for example the famous Saad ibn Abī Waqqās (d.ca. 646), cousin of Amina and uncle of Prophet Muhammad. He is described as very dark, tall and flat-nosed. Prophet Muhammad, it should be noted, was quite proud of his uncle Saad whose military contributions we shall discuss below. We are told that once Prophet Muhammad was sitting with some of his companions and Saad walked by. The prophet stopped and taunted: “That’s my uncle. Let any man show me his uncle.” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?”
“This blackness of the Quraish tribe is not insignificant to the religious history of Islam. The Quraish were the custodians of the cult of the Kaaba in pre-Quranic Makka and at religious ceremonies they would declare nahnu ahlu Allah (“We are the People of Allah”) and throughoutArabia they were known as ahlu Allah, the People of Allah. In other words, the black tribe par excellence was also the Allah-tribe par excellence and custodians of the cult of the Black Stone. Nevertheless, or rather as a consequence, Prophet Muhammad’s greatest struggle was with his own kinsmen, this black, Allah-venerating Quraish tribe. In the end, however, it would be the black Quraish that became the foundation of Islam in its inception, at least in the short term. Not only were the Sunni caliphs drawn from them, but the Shiite Imams, descendents of the black Alī ibn Abu Talib, were likewise black Quraishi Arabs.” See Was The Prophet Muhammad Black or Caucasian?”
Constitution Of Medina Was The First Describing A Secular & Pluralistic Society, Not The Magna Carta!
The constitution of Medina and not the Magna Carta was the first ever constitution describing a pluralistic society. The Charter of Medina (Arabic: صحيفة المدينة, Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah; or: ميثاق المدينة, Mīthāq al-Madīnah), also known as the Constitution of Medina (دستور المدينة, Dastūr al-Madīnah), was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly after his arrival at Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622 CE (or 1 AH), following the Hijra from Mecca. Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan a biographer, of the Holy Prophet Muhammad was a Pakistani politician, diplomat, and international jurist, known particularly for his representation of Pakistan at the United Nations (UN).
Mark Graham the Edgar award-winning author of ‘Black Maria wrote: Muhammad’s (SAW) brilliance lay in politics as well as spirituality. One of the most extraordinary events to take place during this time was the drafting of the Covenant of Medina (Sahifat al-Madinah), what some consider to be the world’s first constitution. It was a treaty and city charter between the Arabs and Jews of the city. All groups (Muslims, Jews, and non-Muslim Arabs) pledged to live in civic harmony, governed by mutual advice and consultation. The Covenant bound these varied groups into a common defense pact and stipulated that the Jews of the city were one community with the Muslims, that they were free to profess and practice their religion and that they were entitled to all the rights pertaining to the Muslims. This amazingly foresighted document was a revolutionary step forward in civil government. Despite the ultimately tragic end of Muslim and Jewish cooperation in Medina, this blueprint of inter-religious tolerance would serve Islam and its subject peoples well in the future. See Mark Graham. How Islam Created the Modern World. Amana Publications, 2006. Pages 21.Read More
A page from Elia Levita’s 16th century Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary contains a list of nations, including the word “כושי” Cushite or Cushi, translated to Latin as “Aethiops” and into German as “Mor”. [Translated into Modern English as Moor]. The Egyptian priest Manetho (c. 300 BC) listed Egypt’s Kushite (25th) dynasty, calling it the “Aethiopian dynasty”. Moreover, when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek (c. 200 BC), the Hebrew appellation “Kush, Kushite” became in Greek “Aethiopia, Aethiopians”, appearing as “Ethiopia, Ethiopians” in the English King James Version. Several notable personalities in Greek and medieval literature were identified as Aethiopian, including several rulers, male and female: Memnon and his brother Emathion, King of Arabia.
Elias Levita, was a Jewish author of several excellent treatises, deserves the first rank out of all the learned Jews that flourished in Rome. Some make him a native of Padua, and say that his relations were settled at Rome, particularly Abraham Aschenazi, chief of that family, and one of the judges of the synagogue; not considering that the word Aschenazi is the appellative which all the German Jews take, from Ashkenaz, the son of Gomer, whom they suppose to have people Germany. See The Ancient History of the Jews, and of the Minor Nations of Antiquity, Etc By Jews.
English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects and was brought to Britain by Germanic invaders (or settlers) from what is now called north west Germany and the Netherlands.A large portion of the modern English vocabulary comes from the Anglo-Norman languages.
English frequently makes use of loanwords originating from other languages. For centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066, the Norman kings and high-ranking nobles in England and to some extent elsewhere in the British Isles spoke Anglo-Norman, a variety of Old Norman, originating from a northern langue d’oïl dialect. Merchants and lower-ranked nobles were often bilingual in Anglo-Norman and English, whilst English continued to be the language of the common people. The legendary religious zeal of the Normans was exercised in religious wars long before the First Crusade carved out a Norman principality in Antioch.
They were major foreign participants in the Reconquista in Iberia. In 1018, Roger de Tosny travelled to the Iberian Peninsula to carve out a state for himself from Moorish lands, but failed. In 1064, during the War of Barbastro, William of Montreuil led the papal army and took a huge booty. The government of Norman Africa was modelled carefully on the precedents offered by the pre-Norman emirs. As in Sicily, close attention was paid to the interests of the Muslim population, while the Christians benefit from the exemption from the poll-tax… Apart from the garrisons in the African towns, and apart from the use of Norman-style cavalry charges, evidence for the presence of ‘Norman’ or ‘Frankish’ characteristics cannot be found. The architects of the African empire were not ‘Normans’ but Greek and Arabic courtiers. See Abulafia, “The Norman Kingdom of Africa”, 47
The Dictionary of the English Language was the first full featured English dictionary. Samuel Johnson published the authoritative work in 1755. Moor may be found in this Dictionary. Click Here to See the entries as they appear in the first full feat…
Notice the English Dictionary traces Moor back to “Maurus” which is Latin. The term “Aethiope” is also Latin and appears as a bridge in the transliteration from the Hebrew term “Cush” to the German “Mor” However when you look up Maurus your informed that it is From Ancient Greek μαυρός (maurós, “dark”) Maurus m (feminine Maura, neuter Maurum); first/second declension Of or pertaining to the Moors. Moorish, Mauritanian. (poetic) African. Maurum accusative singular of Maurus. Maurus m (genitive Maurī); second declension A Moor.
Aethiopia (Greek Αἰθιοπία) first appears as a geographical term in classical sources in reference to the Upper Nileregion, as well as all certain areas south of the Sahara desert and south of the Atlantic Ocean. Its earliest mention is in the works of Homer: twice in the Iliad, and three times in the Odyssey.
The Greek historian Herodotus specifically uses it to refer to such parts of Sub-Saharan Africa as were then known within the inhabitable world. In classical antiquity, Africa (or Libya) referred to what is now known as Northwest Africa (Maghreb) and south of theLibyan desert and Western Sahara, including all desert land west of the southern Nile river . Geographical knowledge of the continent gradually grew, with the 1st century AD Greek travelogue the Periplus of the Erythraean Seadescribing areas as far south as Zimbabwe. Αἰθίοψ (Aithiops), meaning “burnt-face”, was used as a vague term for dark-skinned populations since the time of Homer. It was applied to such dark-skinned populations as came within the range of observation of the ancient geographers i.e. primarily in what was then Nubia, and with the expansion of geographical knowledge, successively extended to certain other areas below the Sahara.
Similarly, in the 15th century Ge’ez Book of Aksum, the name is ascribed to a legendary individual called Ityopp’is, an extrabiblical son of Cush, son of Ham, said to have founded the city of Axum. In addition to this Cushite figure, two of the earliest Semitic kings are also said to have borne the name Ityopp’is according to traditional Ethiopian king lists. At least as early as c. 850, European scholars considered the name to be derived from the Greek words aitho “I burn” + ops “face”.
The name Ethiopia also occurs in many translations of the Old Testament, but the Hebrew texts have Kush, which refers principally to Nubia. In the New Testament, however, the Greek term Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, does occur, referring to a servant of Candace or Kentakes, possibly an inhabitant of Meroe which was later conquered and destroyed by the Kingdom of Axum. The earliest attested use of the name Ityopya in the region itself is as a name for the Kingdom of Aksum in the 4th century, in stone inscriptions of King Ezana, who first Christianized the entire apparatus of the kingdom. In English, and generally outside of Ethiopia, the country was also once historically known as Abyssinia, derived from Habesh, an early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name “Ḥabaśāt” (unvocalized “ḤBŚT”).
Derivations in other languages
If you notice all of the different variations of Mor remain consistent in sound and appearance as for Black, Negro, etc. For those that believe Moor means Black, the Spanish for Black is not Moro, Mauro or Moros but Negro or Negros, the French word for Black and Negro is not More or Maure, but Noir. What many illiterate individuals have a problem understanding is that simply because a Moor’s skin is described as Black or Negro, that said description does not Constitute the Moors Identity, Pedigree or parentage and the same is for those who chose to use the Euro-Anthropologic created terms Negroid to describe the Moors scientifically when they are technically described as being Caucasoid and both terms are defined by linguistics not skin complexion. These terms are Xenonyms.
What many African American or Black Americans have not been educated on is the fact that in 1441 the Portugeese started appying the term Negro to Moors they captured from the coast of Mauretania, this occurs about 51 years before the loss of Al Andalus i.e. Moorish Spain. Thus Free Moors were not booked as Negros but Moors who were captured were booked as Negros and this is partially why the terms Black, Negro have an association with Slave Status and or Criminality. As the portugeese holding to their Christian faith viewed the Moors as infidels because they did not believe Christ to be the Son of God and several other distinctions that existed between Islamic Doctrine and Christiandom Doctrine.
There are Moorish Americans who wrongly and blindly believe that Moabite is a synonym for Moroccan. This belief derives from the MSTA Questionnaire for Children, although many adults believe these questions and answers. Moabite is not the ancient name for Moroccan. But Cushite is the Ancient name for Moor as can be seen above or to be more precise the Hebrew i.e. Semetic Name for the English “Moor”.
Moors do possess Canaanite (Phoenician) ancestry however the Moabites were not the only group of Canaanites and historically the Women were absorbed by the Nabaateans (founders of Kuffic/Arabic) and many of there men were killed by the Israelite’s during battle. The Moabites as a Nation existed in the early half of 1st millennium BCE. They were conquered by the Isarealites. The Talmud expresses the view that the prohibition only applied to male Moabite, who were not allowed to marry born Jews or legitimate converts. Female Moabites, when converted to Judaism, were permitted to marry with only the normal prohibition of a convert marrying a kohen (priest) applying.
The etymology of the word Moab is uncertain. The earliest gloss is found in the Septuagint which explains the name, in obvious allusion to the account of Moab’s parentage, as ἐκ τοῦ πατρός μου. Other etymologies which have been proposed regard it as a corruption of “seed of a father”, or as a participial form from “to desire”, thus connoting “the desirable (land)”. Rashi explains the word Mo’ab to mean “from the father”, since ab in Hebrew and Arabic and the rest of the Semitic languages means “father”. He writes that as a result of the immodesty of Moab’s name, God didn’t command the Jews to refrain from inflicting pain upon the Moabites in the manner in which he did with regards to the Ammonites. Fritz Hommel regards Moab as an abbreviation ofImmo-ab = “his mother is his father
|Moab in hieroglyphs|
Mib / Mab
Compare the Heberw Script for Moab with the Hebrew Script for Kush Moab (ˈmoʊæb/; Moabite: Mʾb; Arabic مؤاب Mu’āb; Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Modern Mo’av, Tiberian Môʼāḇ ; “seed of father”; Greek Μωάβ Mōáb; Assyrian Mu’aba, Ma’ba, Ma’ab; Egyptian Mu’ab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in Jordan.
Cush is traditionally considered the eponymous ancestor of the people of the “land of Cush,” an ancient territory that is believed to have been located on either side or both sides of the Red Sea. As such, “Cush” is alternately identified in Scripture with the kingdom of Meroë, ancient Aethiopia, and/or the Arabian peninsula.
Morocco country in northwest Africa, from Italian, from Berber Marrakesh (properly the name of the city of Marrakesh), from Arabic Maghrib-al-Aqsa “Extreme West.” Compare FrenchMaroc, German Marokko. In English, the first vowel has been altered, apparently by influence of Moor. Related: Moroccan. See the Etymology Dictionary
Moor (n.) “North African, Berber,” late 14c., from Old French More, from Medieval Latin Morus, from Latin Maurus “inhabitant of Mauritania” (northwest Africa, a region now corresponding to northern Algeria and Morocco), from Greek Mauros, perhaps a native name, or else cognate with mauros “black” (but this adjective only appears in late Greek and may as well be from the people’s name as the reverse). Being a dark people in relation to Europeans, their name in the Middle Ages was a synonym for “Negro;” later (16c.-17c.) used indiscriminately of Muslims (Persians, Arabs, etc.) but especially those in India. See theEtymology Dictionary
Moab was not listed among the peoples in the aforementioned Table of Nations and as Canaanites are ultimately Kushites or descendants of Kushites rather through their Canaanite ancestry. Genesis 36:35 references Moab as a country.
Hebrew scholar David M. Goldenberg has suggested that the Hebrew name is derived from Kash, the Egyptian name of Lower Nubia and later of the Nubian kingdom at Napata, known as the Kingdom of Kush.
The form Kush appears in Egyptian records as early as the reign of Mentuhotep II (21st century BC), in an inscription detailing his campaigns against the Nubian region. At the time of the compilation of the Hebrew Bible, and throughout classical antiquity, the Nubian kingdom was centered at Meroe in the modern-day nation of Sudan. Scholars like Johann Michaelis and Rosenmuller have pointed out that the name Cush was applied to tracts of country on both sides of the Red Sea, in the Arabian Peninsula (Yemen) and Northeast Africa. Masudi‘s The Meadows of Gold (947 AD); Wahb ibn Munabbih (738) included among Cush’s offspring “the “Qaran”, the Zaghawa, the Habesha, the Qibt, and the Barbar“.
The Berbers were called Al-Barbar by the Arabs, the early modern Barbary seems to be a re-adoption of the name from Arabic. Muslim historiography has an eponymous Barbar as the ancestor of the Berbers, “the Berbers were the descendants of Barbar, the son of Tamalla, the son of Mazigh, the son of Canaan , the son of Ham, the son of Noah” (Ibn Khaldun, The History of Ibn Khaldun, Chapter 3). See Berbers were the descendants of Barbar.
The name Kush (Cush) can be found from India to Africa and the Middle East. They were the founders of many great civilizations including ancient Egypt. And they have a significant presence in scriptures. It is noteworthy that some of them, like the Ethiopians and the Canaanites, spoke Semitic, and not Hamitic, languages–Seba (if connected with the Sabeans), Havilah (Yemen), and Sheba, whose queen visited Solomon. Professor Archibald Sayce, moreover, has pointed out that Caphtor (the original country of the Philistines before their emigration into Palestine) is the original home of the Phoenicians (Canaanites), who spoke a Semitic language.
A “Biblical Canaan/Ham” needs to be distinguished from the historical Canaan/Ham (or a “historical Israel” from a “literary” or “Biblical Israel”) because the Hebrew Bible contrasts the Canaanites from the nation of Israel, while historically and archaeologically, the kingdoms of Israel and Judah were a subset of Canaanite/Hamitic culture. Therefore, the Hamitic racial strain and the Shemitic (Semitic) racial strain are but one race. This may explain the Quranic silence on the issue. How do we account for Semitic languages being spoken of in Hamitic lands and visa versa? The 20th -century language scholar, Frederick Bodmer17, added: “Though the Semitic and Hamitic group diverge widely, their kinship is generally recognized. They share more root-words than can be explained by borrowing; and they have some common grammatical peculiarities.” Russian scholars and linguists of the 1960s (e.g. V.V Shevoroshkin), concluded that there must have been a single original Mother Tongue. See Kush in the QuranRead More
Is the Moor a Hero or Villain? It appears that he is Both. It seems he is a Villain to the Justice League but a Hero in his own homeland North Africa, I suppose that position would work the same way with the Justice League in the D.C. Universe. The Justice League would appear to be loved by Americans, besides Corporate Monguls like Lex Luthor, a native born american citizen, where as Clark Kent is merely a straw manwhose given name is Kal El, he is an Alien as far as the law is concerned of Krypton origin. We need to see more activity from D.C. on Mohammaed Ibn Bornu’s character especially as it relates to the number one D.C. characters like Bruce Wayne, Wonder Woman, etc… Mohammed Ibn Bornu -aka Mohammed Ibn Bornu of the Moorish (Moslem) Equestrian Empire of Kanem-Bornu a North African hero with an electronic spear that fired bolts of lightning, he rode a flying robot horse. This character is or was primarily an enemy of the Justice League, in any of its various incarnations.
The Cadre is a group of super-villains who battle the Justice League with the exception for members of the Cadre of the Immortal, most of whom were redeemed and became heroes by story’s end. They first appear in Justice League of America #235 February (1985), and were created by Gerry Conway and Chuck Patton.They first appear in Justice League of America #235 February (1985), and were created by Gerry Conway and Chuck Patton. Their leader is the Overmaster, an alien who gifted them with super-powers. His mission is to test humanity’s fitness to inhabit Earth. The original members included Black Mass,Crowbar, Fastball, Nightfall, Shatterfist, and Shrike. The Cadre was created by Gerry Conway and Chuck Patton, first appearing in Justice League of America #235. (1985)
Mohammed Ibn Bornu Justice League Int’l v.2 #63 J.L.I. v.2 #63-64 Active in adventuring; seen JLA #108Read More
In the Century dictionary and cyclopedia By Benjamin Eli Smith the terms Moor and Negro are found. Moor is defined on Page 3852 Moor, n. [Earl mod. E. also Moore, More; <ME. More, Moore, Moore = D. Moor = , MLG. Mor (ef. equiv. MLG, Morian = Dan. and Sw. Morian, Dan. also Maurer) = F. More, also Muare = Pr. Mor = Sp. Moro = Dan. and Sw. Morian, Dan. also Maurer) = F. More, also Maure = Pr. Mor = Sp. Moro = Pg. Mouro = It. Moro, < L. Maurus, M.L. also Morus <Gr. Maupoc, a Moor; perhaps <……., dark (see amaurosis); but perhaps the name was of foreign origin. Cf. blackamoor. Hence Morian, Moresque, Morisco, morris.] One of a dark race dwelling in Barbary in northern Africa. They derive their name from the ancient Mauri or Mauritanians (See Mauritanian), but the present Moors are a mixed race, chiefly Arab and Mauritanian origin. The name is applied especially to the dwellers in the cities. The Arabic conquerors of Spain were called Moors. The folk of that Country be blacke now, and ore black than in the other parts; and there ben ckept Moures. Manderville, Travels P. 146
When we turn to the definition for Negro we find: negro (ne’gro), n. and a. [= F. negre O E. ne- ger, now nigger = D. Gr. Dan. Sw. neger = Buss. negru : see nigger^), < Sp. Pg. It. negro, black, as a noun, negro, m., negra. f., a black person, a negro; It. also nero = Pr. negre, nier = OF. negre, nigre, necre, ner, neir, F. noir, black, < L. niger (nigr-), black, dark, dusk, applied to the night, the sky, a storm, etc., to pitch, ete., to ivy, etc., to the complexion (‘dark’), etc., and also to the black people of Africa, etc. (but the ordinary terms for ‘ African negro ‘ or ‘ African ‘ were ethiops and Afer); also, fig., sad, mourn ful, gloomy, ill-omened, fatal, etc. Cf . Skt. nig, night ; but whether Skt. nig, night, is related to nahta, night, or either to L. niger, black, is not clear. From L. niger are also ult. E. nigrescent, nigritude, Nigella, niello, anneal1 (in part), etc.
The words Moor*, blackamoor, in the same sense, are much older in E. ] I. n. ; pi. negroes (-groz). A black man: specifically, one of a race of men characterized by a black skin and hair of a woolly or crisp nature. Negroes are distinguished from the other races by various other peculiarities — such as the projection of the visage in advance of the forehead ; the prolongation of the upper and lower jaws ; the small facial angle ; the flatness of the forehead and of the hinder part of the head ; the short, broad, and flat nose ; and the thick projecting lips.
The negro race is generally regarded as comprehending the native inhabitants of Sudan, Senegambia, and the region southward to the vicinity of the equator and the great lakes, and their descendants in America and elsewhere ; in a wider sense it is used to comprise also many other tribes further south, as the Zulus and Kafirs. The word negro is often loosely applied to other dark or black-skinned races, and to mixed breeds.
As designating a “race,” it is sometimes written with a capital. Toward the south of this region Is the kyngedome of Guinea, with Senegal, Iaiofo, Gambra, and many other regions of the blacke Moores called Ethiopians or Negros, all which are watered with the river Negro, called in olde tyme Niger R. Eden. See First Three English Books on America [(ed. ArberX p. 374. H. a. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of black men or negroes: as, negro blood; negro dances.
It is often asked what Races are Negro, as the meaning of the term is not well defined. . . .The word is not a National appellation, but denotes a physical type, of which the tribes In North Guinea are the representatives. When these characteristics are not all present, the Race is not Negro, though black and woolly-haired. R. N. Oust, Mod. Langs, of Africa, p. 53.Read More