Mulay Ismail (Reg. 1672-1727) Defended & Supported Jewish Causes In Morocco

“Britons began their seaborne trade in the Mediterranean basin and the east Atlantic during the reign of Queen Elizabeth and repeatedly found themselves, merchants and sailors alike, clashing with Turks and Moors. At the end of the sixteenth century, numerous Britons were taken captive in regions extending from the Ottoman Levant and the North African regencies to Morocco, all the way to the Atlantic half a century later (1640), there were “thousands” of captives in Algiers and Sale, according to an Act of Parliament. But by the beginning of the eighteenth century, Britain had succeeded in establishing its control over the major commercial and maritime zones, and although captives continued to be taken (mainly as a result of the ship wreck), their numbers declined dramatically, ending completely at the beginning of the nineteenth century.” (Page 1)

kitchner-wants-you-britons“Numerous literary critics have written about the impact of captivity on British “identity,” “hybridity”, “multiculturalism,” and “performativity,” while others have interpreted Elizabethan and Jacobean literature (drama in particular) in the light of captivity. Historians have studied the captivity of Europeans in the early modern Mediterranean and Atlantic, emphasizing its violence and anti-Christian motivations, and extrapolating from the seizure of Britons (and Continental Europeans) a casus belli that resulted in the European commercial and maritime domination of the basin.” (Page 1)

Somali-pirates-37“Notwithstanding the pillage committed by all parties, Christian and Muslim alike, and notwithstanding the indiscriminate nature of captivity in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic the scholarly and popular focus has been chiefly on North Africans and their Islamic anti-christian design. Such focus has led to parallels with recent events in the Middle East and elsewhere thus the baginos of the seventeenth century in North Africa have been compared to the Stalinist Gulag, while the Muslim pirates of early modernity have been seen as precursors of modern day Middle Eastern terrorist and of Somali pirates.”(Page 1)

“It’s unfortunate that the study of North African and Mediterranean captivity has been underpinned, as Gordan M. Sayre has noted, by geopolitical events since 2008. For, allusions to contemporary geopolitical events ignore historical specificity and invoke the Orientalist doctrine, described by Edward said, that all Muslims are alike in their position to the West, that their actions never change, and that the piracy of the Mediterranean Algerians in 1608 continues among the Somalis of the Indian Ocean in 2008. (Page 1)

Such comparisons raise serious historiographical concerns about the ideological motives of captivity scholarship since those motives do not remain confined to the ivory towers of academic agreement or disagreement Muslim piracy, slavery, and terrorism serve in stoking contemporary Islamaphobia because they ignore completely ‘Christian piracy, slavery, and “terrorism” (per Janice E. Thomson) that occurred at the same time in the same waters. With the exception of a few careful historians whose work I will be citing frequently, scholars and popular authors continue to demonize the “Barbary Corsairs,” and by extension Muslims, at the same time that the media entertainment industry romanticize ‘Christian’ corsairs.” (Page 1)

“The pirates of the Caribbean, who were contemporaries’ o the “Barbary Corsairs,” have been celebrated in theme parks in Disney Worked, in “Pirates’ Dinner Adventure” in Orlando, Florida, and in the Johnny Depp film sequence Pirates of the Caribbean. No denunciation of the ‘Christianity’ of those pirates is on record, neither now or in the early modern period when numerous reasons were presented t the King Charles II in 1670 why “privateers should not be wholly discontinued in the West Indies. The focus on captivity and piracy by the Barbary Corsairs’ that excludes the concurrent captivity and piracy by the ‘Christian Corsairs’ serves to confirm a binary between evil and good, Muslim and Christian, African and European.”(Page 1)

Captivity of ‘Christians’ by ‘Muslims’ has become one  the dominate motifs in the study of early modern relations between the ‘West’ and ‘Islam’ in the same manner that the accounts of captivity of English colonist by Indians in Cotton Mather’s Decennium Luctuosum (1699) became, as Louise K. Barnett has observed, “the central experience of white-Indian relations. Although the white colonist forced Indians out of their lands, theological and scholarly studies have remained focused on the whites who were captured by the Indians and on their ordeals and tribulations. As Pauline Turner Strong has argued, the number of Indians captured by the Colonist was by far higher than the number of colonist captured by the Indians, and that “it is in large part through….the suppression of the colonist’ role as captors of Indians that the selective tradition of captivity has gained its ideological force” in American studies.” (Page 1)

A similar suppression has dominated the study of British and other European captives in North Africa, and as in scholarship on North America where the “heathenism” and “savagery” of the Indian precipitated suppression of the Indian perspective, so in the prevailing scholarship on ‘Muslim’ captors and ‘Christian” captives. From R.L. Playfair’s work about North Africa with its ominous title, The Scourge of Christendom, to the many book blurbs and titles about “Christian slaves” and “Muslim masters,” there is emphasis on irreconcilable religious polarization that captives shape to much of the critical body of literature on the “Barbary Corsairs” and allows for the continued use of the term “Barbary coast” in contemporary scholarship, a term that was never used by the North Africans themselves and that does not appear on any modern atlas.”  (Page 1)

First the Euro Christian did not see only Muslims as their adversaries to be captured, tortured, and enslaved. Jews too were captured, making the Muslim and the Jew fellow victims of the ‘Christian Master.’ In their piracy and privateering, Western Europeans captured Jews from North Africa, selling or exchanging hem in the manner they did Muslims. After, all in the early modern Islamic world lived the largest number of Jews in the world, spread from the interior of Morocco all the way to the Ottoman Levant and beyond. In North Africa, Jews were employed at court, were sent as diplomatic emissaries and a Jew serving the Moroccan ruler (Mulay Zaydan) turned pirate and captured three Spanish ships.”

There were many occasions when Jews appealed to Muslim authorities to help them against Europeans: Mulay Ismail (reg. 1672-1727) defended and supported their causes in Morocco, as did the Beys and Deys of the regencies. Actually, when Ismail sent Hayyim Tulidanu as ambassador to England, he indicated clearly that the Jew was a “dhimmi of our house,” and because he was of “our house,” he was to receive all honor due to an ambassador. A letter from the British consul in Algiers described how “Turks, Moors and Jews” demanded justice from the Dey “on score of a British Satia freighted by their friends from Tunis to this place.

morocco-MuhammadIIIIn 1751, and at the signing of a treaty between the British Consul-General, William Petticrew and Sidi Muhammad of Morocco (reg. 1757-1790), the latter insisted on an article that his “Subjects, whether Jewish or Muslim, should not be prohibited from living and working in Gibraltar.” In December 1715, George Paddon, the British ambassador to Morocco, wrote from Gibralter: In this Garrison  [Gibraltar] of Moors and Jews about the Number of our Captives in Mequiness, Subjects of Mulay Ismail & some of those Jews Principals who have the handling of the Emperors Money and pay him yearly use for the same. The only way to make them weary…is to use the Jews here as the poor Christians are used in Barbary rather worse…to seize on their Goods, they being all belonging to the Moors, to put in Prison the Chief, making the others work at the fortifications, to keep all manner of Trade from them, in ships to hover on the Coasts and what should strictly examined  & under pretext be brought in & rummaged well for contraband Goods… the Jews at Mequiness fr the sake of their Brethren here would help in procuring a lasting Peace.  I wish the Jews in my Power I have & am well assured that the Chief of the Jews at Salee & one Pettet a French broken Merchant have been the sole occasion of our Rupture.(Page 5-6)

The capture and enslavement of Jews by Europeans encouraged an English resident in Morocco to inquire in 1716 from secretary of state, after an English ship had been seized by pirates, “whether he may not size the Moors & Jews Inhabitants of Gibraltar by way of Reprisal for the cruel usages of British Captives. Because Jews were part o the North African politics, they were viewed by Europeans as part of the enemy and therefore legitimate slaves. Secondly, the Christian slaves on board the Muslim galleys were rarely Easter Christian Arabs or Greeks-unless they were living in west European countries. In the period under study and in the eastern Mediterranean of the Ottoman Empire lived the largest indigenous Christian population outside Western Europe. A French captive in Algiers in 1619 wrote that 3,000 families of free Christian merchants (presumably Catholic) and 179 Greek (Orthodox) families were living in the city and over 20,000 free Christians in other parts of North Africa, outside the Spanish and Portuguese colonies.” (Page 5-6)

See British Captives from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, 1563-1760 By Nabil Mata

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From the Moors of The Soudan Have Descended Most African Americans

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From the Negroes proper of the Sudan have descended most American Negroes See U.S. Immigration Commission Dictionary of races or peoples. The name Sudan is probably a confusing term, especially to modern learners of history as it is a recent name given to the current Republic of Sudan governed by its capital city Khartoum. Geographically, it is the areabordered by Ethiopia andEritrea from the East, Egypt and Libya from the North, Chad and Central Africa from the West and Zaire, Uganda and Kenya from the South. With reference to ancient factsof history, to giveany piece of information aboutancient history of Western Sudan, it is necessary to point out to two important historical facts. First, the origin of the term Sudan and the source from which it isderived. Second, what part of Africa is said to be known as Sudan in ancient history. See Ancient  Sudan Kush

A page from Elia Levita‘s 16th century YiddishHebrewLatinGerman dictionary contains a list of nations, including the word “כושי” Cushite or Cushi, translated to Latin as “Aethiops” and into German as “Mor” [Translated in English as Moor].

The American Negro is a new biological and cultural product, his ancestors from Africa represented tribes as divergent as the several peoples of Europe. They were captured from provinces covering large parts of Central and West Africa, Guinea, the Ivory, Slave, and Gold Coasts, a great part of what is now French West Africa, the vast stretches of the Niger Valley, the Cameroons, the Congo, the Benguela. Among them [their ancestors] were Arabs and Moors from the northerly coast, the small yellow Hottentots from the South, the Bantu tribes from the equatorial regions. Members of these diverse tribes captured of an area as large as the Continent of Europe were completely mixed in the process of transport to African slave ports to the West Indies to American marts and in their distribution to the New World. ” See The Encyclopedia Britannica 1943 (175th Print Edition)” Page’s 193 to 200. The Sudan is the name given to a geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa. 

The states of the Sudan The early kingdoms and empires of the western Sudan In the 10th century the kings of Ghana extended their sway over the Ṣanhājah, the congeries of Amazigh nomadic tribes living around Audaghost, just north of their kingdom, who supplied them with salt and North African goods (see map). This move must have upset the economic balance between agricultural Ghana and the pastoral Ṣanhājah, and ultimately it provoked a reaction. Like the North African Imazighen, the Ṣanhājah tribes were already to some extent Islamized, and they shortly found in a militant, puritanical version of Islam the means to eliminate their tribal differences and to unite in the movement known to history as the Almoravids. In the middle of the 11th century they began to expand into the productive lands on either side of the western Sahara, and it would seem that later in the century Ghana became dominated by them. See Western Africa The States of Sudan

The medieval empires of GhanaMali, and Songhai that controlled the western Sudan had no fixed geopolitical boundaries or singular ethnic or national identities. Although each empire possessed important political and economic centers, such as Ghana’s Kumbi Saleh and Songhai’s Gao, it is not certain that these were permanent capitals. Instead, the empires may have had “floating” capitals that shifted between a number of urbanized centers or traveled with their ruling monarchs. Above all, the empires of the western Sudan were unified by strong leadership, kin-based societies, and the trade routes they sought to dominate.

Trans-Saharan Trade The importance that contact with the Islamic world held for these empires cannot be understated. While extensive trading networks undoubtedly predated Arabic involvement, the development of trans-Saharan commerce in the seventh century by Arabs and Berbers intensified and expanded the trading networks that made the empires of the western Sudan possible. See The Empires of the Western Sudan

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West Sudanian savanna (green) inWest Africa The Western Sudan is a historic region in the northern part of West Africa. Traditionally, the Western Sudan extends from the Atlantic Ocean across to the basin of Lake Chad (which is sometimes associated with a region called “Central Sudan” or other times with the Western Sudan) and includes the savanna and Sahel lands north of the West African tropical rainforest belt. It includes the rivers of the Senegal, Gambia and Niger systems, as well as the highlands of Fouta Djallon from which these rivers flow. West Sudanian savanna (green) in West Africa Historians have considered the Western Sudan as a land of great empires, since at least the seventh century, when the Empire of Ghana flourished, there have been a succession of empires: Ghana (seventh to eleventh century), Mali (thirteenth to fifteenth century), Songhai(1464–1591) are the three best known, but smaller large scale polities have also been important, the Empire of Great Foula (late sixteenth to early eighteenth century), the Bamana Empire (late seventeenth to early nineteenth century), and the nineteenth century empires of El Hajj Umar Tal and Samori Toure. In fact, since the fourteenth century at least, local historians of the region have seen its history in terms of a succession of empires.

This cycle is discernible in the historical accounts of shaykh Uthman, whose history was told to the historian ibn Khaldun while on the Muslim Pilgrimage in 1397. It can also be found in the great Sudanese chronicle, Tarikh al-Fettash. Modern historians have followed suit, and the imperial tradition can be found in textbooks today. See Western Sudan (Wiki)

East Sudanian savanna (green) inCentral and East Africa

Images for Western Sudan images

The Sudan extends in some 5,000 km in a band several hundred km wide across Africa. It stretches from the border of Senegal, through southern Mali (formerly known as French Sudan when it was a French colony), Burkina Faso, southern Niger and northern Nigeria, southern Chad, the western Darfur region of present-day Sudan, and South Sudan.

To the north of the region lies the Sahel, a more arid Acacia savanna region which in turn borders the Sahara desert further north, and to the east the Ethiopian Highlands (called al-Ḥabašah in Arabic). In the south-west lies the West Sudanian savanna, a wetter, tropical savanna region bordering the tropical forests of West Africa. In the center is Lake Chad, and the more fertile region around the lake, while to the south of there are the highlands of Cameroon. To the south-east is the East Sudanian savanna, another tropical savanna region, bordering the forest of Central Africa. This gives way further east to the Sudd, an area of tropical wetland fed by the water of the White Nile.

Habitation

The people of the Sudan region share similar lifestyles, dictated by the geography of the region. The economy is largely pastoral, whilesorghum and rice are cultivated in the southern parts of the region. The region was governed in colonial times by the French, as part of their African colonial empire, but the countries of the region achieved independence in the latter half of the 20th century.

Soudan

Soudan may refer to:

  • The French name (and former English name) for Sudan
  • The French name for French Sudan(present day Mali)

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing ofmathematicsastronomyliterature, and art.[10][11] At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa.[12] In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal’s withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. Significant portions of its legislation is derived from sharia law.

timbuktu-manuscripts-astronomy-mathematicsThe pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone. Sudanese tourists by the Meroë pyramids in various types of clothing.At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai. King Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian kingSargon II.  The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān (بلاد السودان), or “the lands of the Blacks“, an expression denoting West Africa and northern-Central Africa.

International Association for the History of Religions (1959), Numen, Leiden: EJ Brill, p. 131, West Africa may be taken as the country stretching from Senegal in the west, to the Cameroons in the east; sometimes it has been called the central and western Sudan, the Bilad as-Sūdan, ‘Land of the Blacks’, [or]of the Arabs. By the 6th century, fifty states had emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic Kingdom. Nobatia in the north, also known as Ballanah, had its capital at Faras; the central kingdom, Muqurra (Makuria), was centred at Tungul (Old Dongola), about 13 kilometres (8 miles) south of modern Dunqulah; and Alawa (Alodia), in the heartland of old Meroë, which had its capital at Sawba (Soba) (now a suburb of modern-day Khartoum). In all three kingdoms, warrior aristocracies ruled Meroitic populations from royal courts where functionaries bore Greek titles in emulation of the Byzantine court. A missionary sent by Byzantine empress Theodora arrived in Nobatia and started preaching Christianity about 540 AD. The Nubian kings became Monophysite Christians. However, Makuria was of the Melkite Christian faith, unlike Nobatia and Alodia.

After many attempts at military conquest failed, the Arab commander in Egypt concluded the first in a series of regularly renewed treaties known as al-baqṭ (pactum) with the Nubians that governed relations between the two peoples for more than 678 years. Islam progressed in the area over a long period of time through intermarriage and contacts with Arab merchants and settlers. Additionally, exemption from taxation in regions under Muslim rule were also a powerful incentive for conversion.[22] In 1093, a Muslim prince of Nubian royal blood ascended the throne of Dunqulah as king. The two most important Arab tribes to emerge in Nubia were the Jaali and the Juhayna. Today’s northern Sudanese culture often combines Nubian and Arabic elements. During the 16th century, a people called the Funj, under a leader named Amara Dunqus, appeared in southern Nubia and supplanted the remnants of the old Christian kingdom of Alwa, establishing As-Saltana az-Zarqa (the Blue Sultanate), also called the Sultanate of Sennar. The Blue Sultanate eventually became the keystone of the Funj Empire. By the mid-16th century, Sennar controlled Al Jazirah and commanded the allegiance of vassal states and tribal districts north to the Third Cataract and south to the rainforests. The government was substantially weakened by a series of succession arguments and coups within the royal family. In 1820, Muhammad Ali of Egypt sent 4,000 troops to invade Sudan. His forces accepted Sennar’s surrender from the last Funj sultanBadi VII.

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Britain And Barbary 1589 -1689 Nabil Matar

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“This important and fascinating study of early modern England’s relationship to North Africa by the foremost expert on the topic is magisterial in its reach and groundbreaking in the implications it holds for seventeenth-century English culture and political history.”–Mihoko Suzuki, University of Miami “Following an incisive re-appraisal of “The Moor on the Elizabethan Stage”-vital reading for anyone interested in the plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries – Professor Matar offers a groundbreaking study of Britain’s response to Barbary in matters of state and stage from 1589-1689.

This is an exceptional final volume to an inestimable trilogy.”–Patrick Spottiswoode, Shakespeare’s Globe “Unique for its command of English and Islamic primary sources and for its grasp of literary, cultural, and political history, ‘Britain and Barbary, 1589 – 1689’ marks another indispensable contribution by Nabil Matar to our understanding of the relationship between Britain and Islam in the early modern period.

Written with unusual clarity, Matar’s book organizes a wealth of fascinating detail within a narrative that informs our understanding and challenges preconceptions. While firmly grounded in the literature and history of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the book has much to offer any reader who seeks to develop a better understanding of the multi-faceted history of Christian Europe and Islamic North Africa.”–Jack D’Amico, Canisius College Matar examines the influence of Mediterranean piracy and diplomacy on early modern British history and identity. Drawing on published and unpublished literary, commercial, and epistolary sources, he situates British maritime activity and national politics, especially in relation to the Civil War, within the international context of Anglo-Magharibi encounters.

Before there was the British encounter with America, there was the much more complex and destabilizing encounter with Islam in North Africa. Focusing on specific case studies, Matar examines the impact of early visits of Moroccan officials on English playwrights such as Peele, Shakespeare, and Heywood; the captivity of thousands of British sailors in North Africa and its domestic consequences in the first women’s protest movement in English history; the captivity of British women in Barbary, especially the English sultana Balqees;the absorption of thousands of “moors” into the British slave trade; and the aftermath of the colonization and desertion of Tangier.

Matar shows that when Barbary was militarily and diplomatically powerful, its relations with and impact on Britain were extensive. Nabil Matar is professor of English and chair of the Department of Humanities and Communication at the Florida Institute of Technology. This book is the third and final installment in his trilogy that includes Islam in Britain, 1558-1685 and Turks, Moors, and Englishmen in the Age of Discovery.

 

See Britain and Barbary 1589 1689 Nabil Matar

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Moorish Origin Of The Red, Black And Green Pan Afro-American Liberation Flag

As  you view this Blog and the Source to the Black Power Flag aka RBG Flag, notice it was piggy backed from the BRG Flags of the Mahdi of the  eastern Sudan, Africa. Yes, sir I say “eastern” because the Sudan also extended to West Africa where a majority of African Americans have ancestry. From the Negroes proper osdma2f the Sudan have descended most American Negroes, according to the  U.S. Immigration Commission Dictionary of Races or Peoples Right now in response to the parading of LGTB community Flag many African Americans in response have posted up the Black, Red and Green Flag as a symbol representing Black Liberation and the call to Freedom liberty and justice..ultimately un-aware that it derives from the Sudanese Moors.

Before Garvey and Pan Africanism The Red Black and Green Flew in Islamic Sudan, by the Mahdi G.W. Stevens in his With Kitchener to Khartoum refers to a few Mahdist flags. At the battle of Omdurman, he mentions the “black banner of the Kahlifa’s brother” and the “blue and white banners of his son”. Khalifa Abduallah el Taashi was successor to the Mahdi. War artist H.C. Seppings Wright (who was at the battle of Ombdurman, I think) has done a painting of the aftermath of the massacre in which the dead Mahdists are still holding upright the Kahlifa’s black flag. T.F. Mills, 06 Aug 1996 I have a copy of a letter dated 11 September 1952 from the Sudan Government Civil Secretary’s Office, Public Relations Branch to Dr Ottried Neubecker with a drawing of the Mahdists’ flag hoisted over the party headquarters.

The standard version of the flag is a horizontal black-red-green tricolour with a white crescent (pointing up900px-flag_of_the_unia-svgward) and spear overall in the center. Another version had the crescent and spear in the black stripe at the fly. Mark Sensen, 06 Aug 1996 “Le Quotidien du Pharmacien”, 20 February 2006, has a report entitled “Dans le nord du Soudan – Sur les traces des pharaons noirs” (In the north of Sudan – On the steps of the black pharaohs”. The report ends with a quote from a traveler from the XIIIth century (therefore long after the pharaohs!)

Not many African Americans know that because they are mostly educated by Christians or Pan Africanist who withold the history of their Islamic Heritage. For example, most have never heard of Pan Africanism’s Father Edward Blyden and wrongly assume that Marcus Garvey is the father of Pan Africanism, this is no mistake and its by design because many Pan Afriacnist know that the father of Pan Africanism was a Muslim, that’s right Edward Blyden converted to Islam after coming up with Pan Africanism and he found Islam to be better for the African American and African people in general.

montbard-mohammed-ahmed-known-as-the-mahdi-moslem-agitator-in-the-sudanYes that’s right American Black Man and Woman the Black Red and Green flag you inherited originates not with Garvey, Pan Africanism originates not with Garvey, much respect to Garvey for his works, but the Flag bearing the Black, Red and Green originates with the Moors, first flow in the battles led by Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (Arabic: محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله) (August 12, 1844 – June 22, 1885) was a leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on June 29, 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi (or Madhi), the messianic redeemer of the Islamicfaith.  More broadly, the Mahdiyya, as Muhammad Ahmad’s movement was called, was influenced by earlier Mahdist movements in West Africa.  From his announcement of the Mahdiyya in June 1881 until the fall of Khartoum in January 1885, Muhammad Ahmad led asuccessful military campaign against the Turco-Egyptian government of the Sudan (known as the Turkiyah).

During this period, many of the theological and political doctrines of the Mahdiyya were established and promulgated among the growing ranks of the Mahdi’s supporters, the Ansars. A siege by the Mahdist forces started on 18 March 1884. The Briti220px-charles_george_gordon_by_freressh had decided to abandon the Sudan, but it was clear that Gordon had other plans, and the public increasingly called for a relief expedition. It was not until August that the government decided to take steps to relieve Gordon, and only by November was the British relief force, called the Nile Expedition, or, more popularly, the Khartoum Relief Expedition or Gordon Relief Expedition (a title that Gordon strongly deprecated), under the command of Field Marshal Garnet Wolseley, ready.

A siege by the Mahdist forces started on 18 March 1884. The British had decided to abandon the Sudan, but it was clear that Gordon had other plans, and the public increasingly called for a relief expedition. It was not until August that the government decided to take steps to relieve Gordon, and only by November was the British relief force, called the Nile Expedition, or, more popularly, the Khartoum Relief Expedition or Gordon Relief Expedition (a title that Gordon strongly deprecated), under the command of Field Marshal Garnet Wolseley, ready.

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Moor Also Applied To Natives of Hispaniola [Haiti and Dominican Republic]

51pudsbaorl-_sx327_bo1204203200_In 1872 two men began work on a lexicon of words of Asian origin used by the British in India. Since its publication the 1,000-page dictionary has never been out of print and a new edition is due out next year. What accounts for its enduring appeal? Hobson-Jobson is the dictionary’s short and mysterious title. The subtitle reveals more: “A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. By Colonel Henry Yule and AC Burnell.” When the book was published, it was already a source of nostalgia for the passing of the East India Company era as India came under British rule. “It does include a lot of administrative terms – things that the British needed to know. But it was also clearly meant for diversion and entertainment, both for the British serving in India and the British when they had returned home.”

The word Hobson-Jobson itself is one of these. Poet Daljit Nagra revels in this extraordinary word horde in Hobson-Jobson: A Very English Enterprise  “My friend Major John Trotter tells me that he has repeatedly heard this phrase used by British soldiers in the Punjab. It is in fact an Anglo-Saxon version of the wailings of the Mahommedans as they beat their breasts in the procession of the Moharram – ‘Ya Hasan! Ya Hosain!'”   Nagra says this is exactly what he loves about Hobson-Jobson.

“That it now feels like a benign project of Victorian multiculturalism, where words from Hindi, Malay, Arabic and even Chinese can cohabit and intermingle with English words – words that have themselves been remade by rubbing alongside their new neighbours.”

In his introduction to the book, Yule writes that words of Indian origin have been “insinuating themselves into English ever since the end of the reign of Elizabeth and the beginning of that of King James”. Eccentric, entertaining, full of curious detail, the dictionary is nonetheless very much of its time. Teltscher notes “an almost innate sense of British cultural superiority” running through the book. See Hobson-Jobson: The words English owes to India By Mukti Jain Campio…

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As to the term Moor, the Dictionary provides the following: MOOR, MOORMAN, s. (and adj. MOORISH ). A Mahommedan; and so from the habitual use of the term (Mouro), by the Portuguese in India, particularly a Mahommedan inhabitant of India. In the Middle Ages, to Europe generally, the Mahommedans were known as the Saracens. This is the word always used by Joinville, and by Marco Polo. Ibn Batuta also mentions the fact in a curious passage (ii. 425-6). At a later day, when the fear of the  Ottoman had made itself felt in Europe, the word Turk was that which identified itself with the Moslem, and thus we have in the Collect for Good Friday, — “Jews, Turks, lnfidels, and Heretics.” But to the Spaniards and Portuguese, whose contact was with the Musulmans of Mauritania who had passed over and conquered the Peninsula, all Mahommedans were Moors. So the Mahommedans whom the Portuguese met with on their voyages to India, on what coast soever, were alike styled Mouros; and from the Portuguese the use of this term, as synonymous with Mahommedan, passed to Hollanders and Englishmen.

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The word then, as used by the Portuguese discoverers, referred to religion, and implied no nationality. It is plain indeed from many passages that the Moors of Calicut and Cochin were in the beginning of the 16th century people of mixt race, just as the Moplahs (q.v.) are now. The Arab, or Arabo-African occupants of Mozambique and Melinda, the Sumālis of Magadoxo, the Arabs and Persians of Kalhāt and Ormuz, the Boras of Guzerat, are all Mouros to the Portuguese writers, though the more intelligent among these are quite conscious of the impropriety of the term. The Moors of the Malabar coast were middlemen, who had adopted a profession of Islam for their own convenience, and in order to minister for their own profit to the constant traffic of merchants from Ormuz and the Arabian ports. Similar influences still affect the boatmen of the same coast, among whom it has become a sort of custom in certain families, that different members should profess respectively Mahommedanism, Hinduism, and Christianity. The use of the word Moor for Ma- hommedan died out pretty well among educated Europeans in the Bengal Presidency in the beginning of the last century, or even earlier, but probably held its ground a good deal longer among the British soldiery, whilst the adjective Moorish will be found in our quotations nearly as late as 1840. In Ceylon, the Straits, and the Dutch Colonies, the term Moorman for a Musalman is still in common use. Indeed the word is still employed by the servants of Madras officers in speaking of Mahommedans, or of a certain clàss of these. Moro is still applied at Manilla to the Musulman Malays.

  1. — “. . . the Moorsnever came to the house when this trading went on, and we became aware that they wished us ill, insomuch that when any of us went ashore, in order to annoy us they would spit on the ground, and say ‘Portugal, Portugal.'”-<-> Roteiro de V. da Gama, p. 75.

” “For you must know, gentlemen, that from the moment you put into port here (Calecut) you caused disturbance of mind to the Moors of this city, who are numerous and very powerful in the country.” —Correa, Hak. Soc. 166.

  1. — “We reached a very large island called Sumatra, where pepper grows in considerable quantities. . . . The Chief is a Moor, but speaking a different language.”-<-> Santo Stefano, in India in the X Vth Cent.[7].
  2. — “Adì 28 zugno vene in Venetia insieme co Sier Alvixe de Boni un sclav moroel qual portorono i spagnoli da la insula spagniola.” — MS.in Museo Civico at Venice. Here the term Moor is applied to a native of Hispaniola!
  3. — “Hanc (Malaccam) rex Maurusgubernabat.” — Emanuelis Regis Epistola, f. 1
  1. — “And for the hatred in which they hold them, and for their abhorrence of the name of Frangue, they call in reproach the Christians of our parts of the world Frangues(see FIRINGHEE), just as we improperly call themagain Moors.” — Barros, IV. iv. 16.
  2. 1560. — “When we lay at Fuquien, we did see certain Moores, who knew so little of their secte that they could say nothing else but that Mahomet was a Moore, my father was a Moore, and I am aMoore.”-<-> Reports of the Province of China, done into English by R. Willes, in Hakl.ii. 557.
  3. — “And as to what you say of Ludovico Vartomano, I have spoken both here and in Portugal, with people who knew him here in India, and they told me that he went about here in the garb of a Moor, and that he came back among us doing penance for his sins; and that the man never went further than Calecut and Cochin, nor indeed did we at that time navigate those seas that we now navigate.” — Garcia, f. 30.
  4. — “. . . always whereas I have spoken of Gentiles is to be understood Idolaters, and whereas I speak of Moores, I mean Mahomets secte.” — Caesar Frederike, in Hakl.ii. 359.
  5. — “The King was fled for feare of the King of Makasar, who . . . would force the King to turne Moore, for he is a Gentile.” — Midleton, in Purchas, i. 239.
  6. — “Les Moresdu pay faisoiẽt courir le bruict, que les notres avoient esté battus.” — Wytfliet, H. des Indes, iii. 9.
  7. — “King Jangier (Jehāngīr) used to make use of a reproach: That one Portugees

 

  1. BANDICOOT : (page 58)

cats. In fact, these latter animals run away from them, and can’t stand against them, for they would get the worst of it. So they are only caught by stratagem. I have seen these rats at Dwaigīr, and much amazed I was!”– Ibn Batuta, iv. 47. Fryer seems to exaggerate worse than the Moor: 1673.– “For Vermin, the strongest huge Rats as big as our Pigs, which burrow under the Houses, and are bold enough to venture on Poultry.”– Fryer, 116. The following surprisingly confounds two entirely different animals: 1789.– “The Bandicoot, or musk

  1. BENGAL : (page 85)

deals in fiction– a thing clear from internal evidence, and expressly alleged, by the judicious Garcia de Orta: “As to what you say of Ludovico Vartomano, I have spoken, both here and in Portugal, with men who knew him here in India, and they told me that he went about here in the garb of a Moor, and then reverted to us, doing penance for his sins; and that the man never went further than Calecut and Cochin.”– Colloquios, f. 30. c. 1250.– “Muhammad Bakhtiyár… returned to Behár. Great fear of him prevailed in the minds of the infidels of the territories of

  1. BENGAL : (page 85)

Bangāla mi rawad.” Hāfiz. i.e., “Sugar nibbling are all the parrots of Ind From this Persian candy that travels to Bengal” (viz. his own poems). 1498.– “Bemgala: in this Kingdom are many Moors, and few Christians, and the King is a Moor… in this land are many cotton cloths, and silk cloths, and much silver; it is 40 days with a fair wind from Calicut.”– Roteiro de V. da Gama, 2nd ed. p. 110. 1506.– “A Banzelo, el suo Re è Moro, e li se fa el forzo de’ panni de gotton…”-<-> Leonardo do Ca’

  1. BENGAL : (page 86)

the city of Banghella… one of the best that I had hitherto seen.”– Varthema, 210. 1516.– “… the Kingdom of Bengala, in which there are many towns…. Those of the interior are inhabited by Gentiles subject to the King of Bengala, who is a Moor; and the seaports are inhabited by Moors and Gentiles, amongst whom there is much trade and much shipping to many parts, because this sea is a gulf… and at its inner extremity there is a very great city inhabited by Moors, which is called Bengala, with a very good harbour.” —

  1. CASIS, CAXIS, CACIZ : (page 169)
  2. ii. 1. [1553.– See quotation from Barrosunder LAR . [1554.– “Who was a Caciz of the Moors, which means in Portuguese an ecclesiastic.” — Castañeda, Bk. I. ch. 7.] 1561.– “The King sent off theMoor, and with him his Casis, an old man of much authority, who was the principal priest of his Mosque.”– Correa, by Ld. Stanley, 113. 1567.– “… The Holy Synod declares it necessary to remove from the territories of His Highness all the infidels whose office it
  3. COIR : (page 234)

(Alboquerque)… in Cananor devoted much care to the preparation of cables and rigging for the whole fleet, for what they had was all rotten from the rains in Goa River; ordering that all should be made of coir (cairo), of which there was great abundance in Cananor; because a Moor called Mamalle, a chief trader there, held the whole trade of the Maldive islands by a contract with the kings of the isles… so that this Moor came to be called the Lord of the Maldives, and that all the coir that was used throughout India had to be bought from the hands of this

  1. COIR : (page 234)

from the rains in Goa River; ordering that all should be made of coir (cairo), of which there was great abundance in Cananor; because a Moor called Mamalle, a chief trader there, held the whole trade of the Maldive islands by a contract with the kings of the isles… so that this Moor came to be called the Lord of the Maldives, and that all the coir that was used throughout India had to be bought from the hands of this Moor…. The Governor, learning this, sent for the said Moor, and ordered him to abandon this island trade and to recall his factors…. The

  1. COIR : (page 234)

a Moor called Mamalle, a chief trader there, held the whole trade of the Maldive islands by a contract with the kings of the isles… so that this Moor came to be called the Lord of the Maldives, and that all the coir that was used throughout India had to be bought from the hands of this Moor…. The Governor, learning this, sent for the said Moor, and ordered him to abandon this island trade and to recall his factors…. The Moor, not to lose such a profitable business,… finally arranged with the Governor that the Isles should not be taken from him, and that he in

  1. COIR : (page 234)

trade of the Maldive islands by a contract with the kings of the isles… so that this Moor came to be called the Lord of the Maldives, and that all the coir that was used throughout India had to be bought from the hands of this Moor…. The Governor, learning this, sent for the said Moor, and ordered him to abandon this island trade and to recall his factors…. The Moor, not to lose such a profitable business,… finally arranged with the Governor that the Isles should not be taken from him, and that he in return would furnish for the king 1000 bahars (barés) of

  1. COIR : (page 234)

Moor came to be called the Lord of the Maldives, and that all the coir that was used throughout India had to be bought from the hands of this Moor…. The Governor, learning this, sent for the said Moor, and ordered him to abandon this island trade and to recall his factors…. The Moor, not to lose such a profitable business,… finally arranged with the Governor that the Isles should not be taken from him, and that he in return would furnish for the king 1000 bahars (barés) of coarse coir, and 1000 more of fine coir, each bahar weighing 4½

  1. COLOMBO : (page 236)

the Moors. … There were not 40 men in all, whole and sound for battle. And one brave man made a cross on the tip of a cane, which he set in front for standard, saying that God was his Captain, and that was his Flag, under which they should march deliberately against Columbo, where the Moor was with his forces.”– Correa, ii. 521. 1553.– “The King, Don Manuel, because… he knew… that the King of Columbo, who was the true Lord of the Cinnamon, desired to possess our peace and friendship, wrote to the said Affonso d’Alboquerque, who

  1. CONSUMAH, KHANSAMA : (page 247)

occurs in Elliot, vii. 153. The Anglo-Indian form Consumer seems to have been not uncommon in the 18th century, probably with a spice of intention. From tables quoted in Long, 182, and in Seton-Karr, i. 95, 107, we see that the wages of a “Consumah, Christian, Moor, or Gentoo,” were at Calcutta, in 1759, 5 rupees a month, and in 1785, 8 to 10 rupees. [1609.– “Emersee Nooherdee being called by the Cauncamma.” — Danvers, Letters, i. 24.] c. 1664. — “Some time after… she chose for her Kane-saman, that is, her

  1. DECCAN : (page 301)
  2. 258.] 1616.– “… his son Sultan Coron, who he designed, should, should command in Deccan.”-<-> Sir T. Roe.[” “There is a resolution taken that Sultan Caronne shall go to the Decan Warres.”– Ibid.Hak. Soc. i. 192. [1623.– “A Moor of Dacàn.”– P. della Valle, Hak. Soc. ii. 225.] 1667.- “But such as at this day, to Indians known, In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms.” Paradise Lost, ix. [1102-3]. 1726.– “Decan [as a division] includes Decan,
  3. GENTOO : (page 367)

GENTOO , s. and adj. This word is a corruption of the Portuguese Gentio, ‘a gentile’ or heathen, which they applied to the Hindus in contradistinction to the Moros or ‘Moors,’ i.e. Mahommedans. [SeeMOOR .] Both terms are now obsolete among English people, except perhaps that Gentoo still lingers at Madras in the sense b; for the terms Gentio and Gentoo were applied in two senses: a. To the Hindūs generally. b. To the

  1. GENTOO : (page 367)

their language the Gentile language. Besides these two specific senses, Gentio was sometimes used for heathen in general. Thus in F. M. Pinto: “A very famous Corsair who was called Hinimilau, a Chinese by nation, and who from a Gentio as he was, had a little time since turned Moor….”– Ch. L. a.- 1548.– “The Religiosos of this territory spend so largely, and give such great alms at the cost of your Highness’s administration that it disposes of a good part of the funds. … I believe indeed they do all this in real zeal and

  1. LAR : (page 505)

pay to this day to a mosque which that Caciz (see CASIS ) had made in a district called Hongez of Sheikh Doniar, adjoining the city of Lara, distant from Ormuz over 40 leagues.”– Barros, II. ii. 2. 1602.– “This man was a Moor, a native of the Kingdom of Lara, adjoining that of Ormuz: his proper name was Cufo, but as he was a native of the Kingdom of Lara he took a surname from the country, and called himself Cufo Larym.”– Couto, IV. vii. 6. 1622.– “Lar, as I said

  1. LUGOW, TO : (page 524)

spread, fasten, connect, plaster, put to work, employ, engage, use, impute, report anything in the way of scandal or malice”<-> in which long list he has omitted one of the most common uses of the verb, in its Anglo-Indian form lugow, which is “to lay a boat alongside the shore or wharf, to moor.” The fact is that lagānā is the active form of the neuter verb lag-nā, ‘to touch, lie, to be in contact with,’ and used in all the neuter senses of which lagāṅā expresses the transitive senses. Besides neuter lagnā, active lagānā, we have a

  1. MACE : (page 530)

value being denominated in like manner candareen (q.v.). The word is originally Skt. māsha, ‘a bean,’ and then ‘a particular weight of gold’ (comp. CARAT, RUTTEE ). 1539.– “… by intervention of this thirdsman whom the Moor employed as broker they agreed on my price with the merchant at seven mazes of gold, which in our money makes a 1400 reys, at the rate of a half cruzado the maz.”– Pinto, cap. xxv. Cogan has, “the fishermen sold me to the merchant for seven mazes of gold, which

  1. MALACCA : (page 544)

Frazala ) of it to make a crusado. Here too are many large parrots all red like fire.”– Roteiro de V. da Gama, 110-111. 1510.– “When we had arrived at the city of Melacha, we were immediately presented to the Sultan, who is a Moor… I believe that more ships arrive here than in any other place in the world….”– Varthema, 224. 1511.– “This Paremiçura gave the name of Malaca to the new colony, because in the language of Java, when a man of Palimbão flees away they call him

  1. MALUM : (page 548)

and conduct them,” &c.– Roteiro do Mar Roxo, &c., 35. The Island retains its name, and is mentioned as Pilot Island by Capt. Haines in J. R. Geog. Soc. ix. 126. It lies about 1½ m. due east of Perim. 1553.– “… among whom (at Melinda) came a Moor, a Guzarate by nation, called Malem Cana, who, as much for the satisfaction he had in conversing with our people, as to please the King, who was inquiring for a pilot to give them, agreed to accompany them.”– Barros, I. iv. 6. c. 1590.– “Mu’allim or Captain. He

  1. MANGROVE : (page 557)

certain trees, lofty, dense and green, which grow in the very sea-water, and which they call mangle.”-<-> Ibid. f. 224. 1553.– “…. by advice of a Moorish pilot, who promised to take the people by night to a place where water could be got… and either because the Moor desired to land many times on the shore by which he was conducting them, seeking to get away from the hands of those whom he was conducting, or because he was really perplext by its being night, and in the middle of a great growth of mangrove (mangues) he never

  1. MOGUL, THE GREAT : (page 572)

in Ramusio, iii. 1572.- “A este o Rei Cambayco soberbissimo Fortaleza darà na rica Dio; Porque contra o Mogor poderosissimo Lhe ajude a defender o senhorio….” Camões, x. 64. By Burton: “To him Cambaya’s King, that haughtiest Moor, shall yield in wealthy Diu the famous fort that he may gain against the Grand Mogor ‘spite his stupendous power, your firm support….” [1609.– “When you shall repair to the Greate Magull.” — Birdwood, First Letter Book, 325. [1612.–

Seee Hobson-Jobson: Being a Glossary of Anglo-Indian Colloquial Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms: Etymological, Historical, Geographical, and Discursive Sir Henry Yule Arthur Coke Burnell – January 1, 1886 London : J. Murray – Publisher pg. 446

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