The Ancient Moors were indeed black as coal or brown as wood or tree bark complexion(s) and color(s), however the term itself does not mean Black or Negro, as English dictionaries would give the untrained mind the delusion of or as your so called scholars and teachers may have taught you. What they have done is replaced the true meaning of the term with the complexion or skin color description as to the people in thier efforts to implement White Supremacy into literature which requires the duty to Blacken or strip dark skin people of their Moorish heritage i.e. continuing Massa’s religious Conversion which requires “Name” and “Heritage” stripping aka “Denationalization”.
They want you to feel comfortable identifying under badges of Slavery branded upon Moors starting in 1441 A.D. such as Negro and Black, when these two terms that are only found on Slave Records and revisionist history books written in effort to create Black Pride in those learning about the history, heritage and culture of the Moors, who claim it as Black History instead of Moorish History, it was Black authors who accepted the badges of slavery as a suitable Political i.e. Racial Identity following behind White Supremacist authors. These same Black authors chose to ignore the use of the “Black Caste/Badge of Slavery” as only being employed in Slave Records and accepted it as an identifier for various Indigenous and Ancient Nations, Kingdoms and Tribes. However, the truth can be colored over but it cannot be removed. The reason you see Negro and Black in dictionaries defining Moor is because the authors of the dictionaries were on board with branding Moors as Negro and Black.
The first source I present that Moor means Westerner is Philip Khuri Hitti (فيليب خوري حتي in Arabic), (Shimlan 1886 – Princeton 1978) was a Lebanese American scholar and authority on Arab and Middle Eastern history, Islam, andSemitic languages. He almost single-handedly created the discipline of Arabic Studies in the United States. In his work History of the Arabs first published in 1937, contended that the term “Moor” has a geographic designation meaning Western.
Hitti spent 10 years writing this book he provided that “The Romans called Western Africa “Mauretania” and its inhabitants Mauri (presumably of Phoenician origin meaning ‘Western’) whence [the] Spanish Moor [and the] English Moor. The Berbers, therefore, were the Moors proper, but the term was conventionally applied to all Moslems of Spain and North-western Africa.”
I’ve just read your excellent article “MOOR MEANS WESTERNER NOT “BLACK, NEGRO OR COLORED”. A small point, it’s a pity it is illustrated with a picture of an Assyrian Geni which has nothing at all to do with the Amorites or Phoenicians. The Assyrian and Babylonian word for ancient Syria and the Mediterranean coast was Amuru (I’m an ex-Assyriologist) and I think your description of it’s misuse good. However, the picture is not of a Phoenician or an Amorite, but definitely originates from an Assyrian relief, i.e., in the East. The Assyrians lived in Iraq near modern day Mosul and they certainly originated the word. Just trying to be helpful. If you research Assyrian reliefs you’ll see where I’m coming from. Thanks. – John Bruce.
The origins of the term is not elusive like most claim and do not go back to Death and all these frivolous notions many people have come up with today on Youtube. The arrogance within the ignorance is remarkable, among some of these bogus scholars and educators, you even have people on the Hidden Colors video purporting to be educators telling people that Moors means Black, this is because they do not deal with technicalities, the fact that English Dictionaries from the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th and early 19th century use Black and Negro and sometimes Black man merely demonstrates who it applied to versus specifically meaning that Moor means Black or Negro, what it shows is that the writers of the English Dictionaries were on board with the Stripping of Name and Heritage Scheme, they branded Moors as Negroes and Blacks, thus it was significant to define Moor as Negro and Black in their dictionaries so the English descendants would not forget who the term Moor applies too i.e. the People now identified as Negros and Blacks.
The Second Source provides that its derivation from the Semitic etymon Mahourím, “People of the West,” those who say that source is questionable are usually unaware as to the Phoenician/Canaanite origin to the term Roman “Maure”, and the Greek “Mavros” whcih gave birth to the Romance languages (German, English, French, Spanish, etc), the Arabic al-Mar is extremely rare and is alleged to not occur in Andalusi Arabic sources which I think is irrelevant because the Moors (Maures) were a Nation composed of many tribes before the Andalusian Era in general. Mauroi is late Greek and may have been derived from the Latin ethnic name Mauri. Following the destruction of Carthage in 146 B.C.E., the term mauri was used to indicate the tribes inhabiting the Roman provinces established in Ancient Mauretania, corresponding to modern-day western Algeria and northeastern Morocco.
In the Latin Middle Ages, Mauri referred to a mixture of Berbers and Arabs inhabiting the coastal regions of Northwest Africa. In Spain, Portugal, and Italy, Mauri became Moros (Maures in French). More commonly, however, it was a racial designation for dark-skinned or black skin peoples, as in its English usage, which is seen as early as the fourteenth century. The source article explained the term “Moor” as background to Menocal’s Ornament of the World and Maalouf’s Leo Africanus. See the article by David Assouline reprinted from The Oxford Encyclopedia …
Now as to my Third Source demonstrating the relationship between “Moor” and “Westerner”. The Normans re-took Sicily in 1061, establishes trading relationships with northern Africa, and employed Africans in their armies. Fredrick II, for example no only used such warriors but placed them in his bodyguard. These African guards, together with African musicians and animal keepers, as well as the Emperor’s African personal attendants, formed part of the imperial processions. An African Johannes Morus, was appointed vizier of the Kingdom of Sicily. (The etymology of the word Moor is uncertain, it can be traced to the Phoenician term “Mahurin” meaning “Westerners”; See Encyclopedia of the World’s Minorities By Carl Skutsch The fact that the West is called the Maghrib should also ring a bell.
Finally for the Fourth Source: “The the Mediterranean and south-western European ports. They were the foremost among the ancient merchants. They inhabited only a narrow strip of the northern coastline of Palestine. The area was originally settled by Amorites (meaning “Westerners”), who were not necessarily Hebrews, but were a kindred people. They were Semitic, or Shemitic people, that is, they claimed descent from Shem. Although they later became very mixed with the descendants of Ham, such as the Canaanites, they had a high proportion of fair skinned, fair-haired Shemitic peoples, from whom Abraham and his family came. When Israel later settled in the Promised Land, many Israelite’s, mostly from the tribes of Dan and Zebulun, joined with them in their seafaring enterprises. In this way the forerunners of the later Israelitish migrations reached the British Isles, and they had settlements in Spain and Portugal. The Phoenicians had included Canaanites and Jebusites, as well as Israelites, but the rulers of the Phoenician and Carthaginian nations were of the Semitic stock, as we may guess from the story of Hiram, King of Tyre, in Phoenicia. He was of great assistance to King Solomon of Israel in his temple building operations of the Temple. If Hiram had not been of the original Amoritic or Shemitic stock, it is unlikely that he would have been so friendly and helpful to a king of Israel. http://www.ensignmessage.com/phoenicians.html See WHO WERE THE PHOENICIANS AND CARTHAGINIANS? By Valerie Martlew, U.K.
Stanley Lane Poole “Moors in Spain” Page 20 also states in footnotes the term “Moor” comes from a “Hebrew” word “Mahuran”. Which is close in spelling and sound as the “Phoenician” source pointed out by Phillip Khuri Hitti, above. According to Dana Reynolds-Marniche “the word Amurru is supposed to the source of the semetic-Assyrian word “Western” because the Amorites lived in the mountains West of them. Dana Reynolds-Marniche provided the following reference also which raises a significance to “Westerner” or “West”. “THE MOGHRABIN OR MOGHRABIN XII: From the word “Moghrabi” the singular of Mogharba or Mograbin, through the Latin Maurus, has arisen the anglicized “Moor,” and from “Moghrab el Aksa,” “the extreme west,” the name “Morocco.” It must not, however, be assumed that all the MOGHARBA in Egypt or the Sudan came from Morocco; it is unlikely that any of them, a certain number of individuals of the merchant class excepted, did so.”A history of the Arabs in the Sudan and some account of the people who preceded them and of the tribes inhabiting Darfur
Using Greek and Roman sources Frank M. Snowden has pointed out that Mauri (a northwest African people whose color received frequent notice) were described as nigri (black) and adusti (scorched). The Roman dramatist Platus (254-184 B.C.) maintained that the Latin word Maurus was a synonym for Niger. In contrasting the Moors of the sixth century with another racial group in North Africa, Procopius (circa 550 A.D.) wrote that they were “not black skinned like the Moors.” Isidore, a Catholic scholar and the Archbishop of Seville (587 -636 A.D.) wrote that the word Maurus meant black. With the sudden eruption of the Arabs, during the middle of the seventh century, Mauri disappears for a time from the historical records. It reemerges, however, in medieval literature. For example, in a Middle English romance called Kyng Alisaunder (ca. 1175), the conqueror Darius has among his troops a contingent of soldiers led by Duke Mauryn. Regarding Mauryn, J.B. Friedman writes that, “ … it sounds rather like Moor in this context.” 4 As late as 1 398 we find the following reference to the Moors: “Also the nacyn [nation] of Maurys [Moors] theyr blacke colour comyth of the inner partes.” 5 There are Irish records of a Viking raid on Spain and North Africa in 862. During the raid a number of Blacks were captured and some carried to Dublin. In Ireland they were known as “blue men” (Irish, fir gorma\ Old Norse, blamenn). The entry is under the title “Three Fragments Copied from Ancient Sources,” and sheds further light on the ethnicity of the Moors. The entry reads: After that, the Scandinavians went through the country, and ravaged it; and they burned the whole land; and they brought a great host of [the Moors] in captivity with them to Ireland. These are the ‘blue men’ (firgorma ); because the Moors are the same as negroes; Mauretania is the same as negro-land. 6 See “Golden Age of the Moor” book under the title ” The Moor in Africa and Europe” by Ivan Van Sertima.
In Sumerian they [Amorites] were known as the Martu or the Tidnum (in the Ur III Period), in Akkadian by the name of “Amurru”, and in Egypt as “Amar”, all of which mean ‘westerners‘ or ‘those of the west‘, as does the Hebrew name “Amorite”. See Ancient History Encyclopedia
In Sumero-Akkadian and Eblaite texts from the period from 2400 to 1600 B.C.E., Sumerian MAR.TU, Eblaite Martu(m), and “Akkadian Amurru” occur as a geographical term meaning literally “the West.” The area extended westward from the Euphrates River as far as the Mediterranean Sea. It specifically embraced the great Syrian desert, the Orontes River valley, and the Amanus Mountains. In later Assyrian texts, “Amurru” was an established name for Syria-Palestine. See Encyclopedia Judaica: Amorites
The Hebrew terms “maarab, mareb, marrabah and mah-ar-awb” also mean “West“. See Strong’s Concordance. I suspect those terms are the origin of “Arab”. The Cushites had a capitol in modern day Yemen called Ma’rib during the Sabaen era. A page from Elia Levita’s 16th century Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary contains a list of nations, including the word “כושי” Cushite or Cushi, translated to Latin as “Aethiops” and into German as “Mor”. [Translated into Modern English as Moor]. See Dictionary Defines The Hebrew Term “Cushite” As “Moor” in English
Here is an article titled Contributions and Comments documenting E. A. Wallis Budge’s association of “Amurru” with South-West.
A Daily Bible Study article states: The English word “west,” as we use it today, originated from an old Anglo-Saxon and Gothic (the Goths and the Saxons were Germanic tribes in north-central Europe; the Anglos were a tribe of the Saxons from whom the English people originated) root word, vas, which meant to dwell – not referring foremost to people, but to the sun. Their logic was that, just as most people go to their dwelling place at night, they regarded the “west” as the dwelling place of the sun because that’s where it went at night, when it set in that direction. The original meaning of “west” was used to translate two original Hebrew words of the Holy Scriptures. One of them, pronounced yawm, means to roar. It referred to the Mediterranean Sea (although it was not known to the ancient Israelites by that name) which formed the west border of the land of Israel as a whole. The other Hebrew word is pronounced maw-ar-aw-baw; it means shading or shadows, as produced by the sun as it set in the west. To the ancient Israelites, “west” was both the end of their land, and the end of their day. See What Did West Mean To The Israelites?
Maghreb: “The Maghreb (/ˈmʌɡrəb/; Arabic: المغرب, translit. al-Maɣréb, lit. ‘The West’), also known as Northwest Africa or Northern Africa, Greater Arab Maghreb (Arabic: المغرب العربي الكبير, translit. al-Maghrib al-ʿArabi al-Kabir), Arab Maghreb (Arabic: المغرب العربي, translit. al-Maghrib al-ʿArabi) or Greater Maghreb (Arabic: المغرب الكبير, translit. al-Maghrib al-Kabīr), or by some sources the Berber world, Barbary and Berbery, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania. It additionally includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara (mostly controlled by Morocco) and the cities of Melilla and Ceuta (both controlled by Spain and claimed by Morocco). As of 2018, the region has a population of over 100 million people. ”