A page from Elia Levita’s 16th century Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary contains a list of nations, including the word “כושי” Cushite or Cushi, translated to Latin as “Aethiops” and into German as “Mor”. [Translated into Modern English as Moor]. The Egyptian priest Manetho (c. 300 BC) listed Egypt’s Kushite (25th) dynasty, calling it the “Aethiopian dynasty”. Moreover, when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek (c. 200 BC), the Hebrew appellation “Kush, Kushite” became in Greek “Aethiopia, Aethiopians”, appearing as “Ethiopia, Ethiopians” in the English King James Version. Several notable personalities in Greek and medieval literature were identified as Aethiopian, including several rulers, male and female: Memnon and his brother Emathion, King of Arabia.
Elias Levita, was a Jewish author of several excellent treatises, deserves the first rank out of all the learned Jews that flourished in Rome. Some make him a native of Padua, and say that his relations were settled at Rome, particularly Abraham Aschenazi, chief of that family, and one of the judges of the synagogue; not considering that the word Aschenazi is the appellative which all the German Jews take, from Ashkenaz, the son of Gomer, whom they suppose to have people Germany. See The Ancient History of the Jews, and of the Minor Nations of Antiquity, Etc By Jews.
English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects and was brought to Britain by Germanic invaders (or settlers) from what is now called north west Germany and the Netherlands.A large portion of the modern English vocabulary comes from the Anglo-Norman languages.
English frequently makes use of loanwords originating from other languages. For centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066, the Norman kings and high-ranking nobles in England and to some extent elsewhere in the British Isles spoke Anglo-Norman, a variety of Old Norman, originating from a northern langue d’oïl dialect. Merchants and lower-ranked nobles were often bilingual in Anglo-Norman and English, whilst English continued to be the language of the common people. The legendary religious zeal of the Normans was exercised in religious wars long before the First Crusade carved out a Norman principality in Antioch.
They were major foreign participants in the Reconquista in Iberia. In 1018, Roger de Tosny travelled to the Iberian Peninsula to carve out a state for himself from Moorish lands, but failed. In 1064, during the War of Barbastro, William of Montreuil led the papal army and took a huge booty. The government of Norman Africa was modelled carefully on the precedents offered by the pre-Norman emirs. As in Sicily, close attention was paid to the interests of the Muslim population, while the Christians benefit from the exemption from the poll-tax… Apart from the garrisons in the African towns, and apart from the use of Norman-style cavalry charges, evidence for the presence of ‘Norman’ or ‘Frankish’ characteristics cannot be found. The architects of the African empire were not ‘Normans’ but Greek and Arabic courtiers. See Abulafia, “The Norman Kingdom of Africa”, 47
Notice the English Dictionary traces Moor back to “Maurus” which is Latin. The term “Aethiope” is also Latin and appears as a bridge in the transliteration from the Hebrew term “Cush” to the German “Mor” However when you look up Maurus your informed that it is From Ancient Greekμαυρός (maurós, “dark”) Maurus m (feminine Maura, neuter Maurum); first/second declension Of or pertaining to the Moors. Moorish, Mauritanian. (poetic) African. Maurum accusative singular of Maurus. Maurus m (genitive Maurī); second declension A Moor.
Aethiopia (Greek Αἰθιοπία) first appears as a geographical term in classical sources in reference to the Upper Nileregion, as well as all certain areas south of the Sahara desert and south of the Atlantic Ocean. Its earliest mention is in the works of Homer: twice in the Iliad, and three times in the Odyssey.
The Greek historian Herodotusspecifically uses it to refer to such parts of Sub-Saharan Africa as were then known within the inhabitable world. In classical antiquity, Africa (or Libya) referred to what is now known as Northwest Africa (Maghreb) and south of theLibyan desert and Western Sahara, including all desert land west of the southern Nile river . Geographical knowledge of the continent gradually grew, with the 1st century AD Greek travelogue the Periplus of the Erythraean Seadescribing areas as far south as Zimbabwe. Αἰθίοψ (Aithiops), meaning “burnt-face”, was used as a vague term for dark-skinned populations since the time of Homer. It was applied to such dark-skinned populations as came within the range of observation of the ancient geographers i.e. primarily in what was then Nubia, and with the expansion of geographical knowledge, successively extended to certain other areas below the Sahara.
Similarly, in the 15th century Ge’ezBook of Aksum, the name is ascribed to a legendary individual called Ityopp’is, an extrabiblical son of Cush, son of Ham, said to have founded the city of Axum. In addition to this Cushite figure, two of the earliest Semitic kings are also said to have borne the name Ityopp’is according to traditional Ethiopian king lists. At least as early as c. 850, European scholars considered the name to be derived from the Greek words aitho “I burn” + ops “face”.
The name Ethiopia also occurs in many translations of the Old Testament, but the Hebrew texts have Kush, which refers principally to Nubia. In the New Testament, however, the Greek term Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, does occur, referring to a servant of Candace or Kentakes, possibly an inhabitant of Meroe which was later conquered and destroyed by the Kingdom of Axum. The earliest attested use of the name Ityopya in the region itself is as a name for the Kingdom of Aksum in the 4th century, in stone inscriptions of King Ezana, who first Christianized the entire apparatus of the kingdom. In English, and generally outside of Ethiopia, the country was also once historically known asAbyssinia, derived from Habesh, an early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name “Ḥabaśāt” (unvocalized “ḤBŚT”).
Etymology of the Latin word Maurus the Latin word Maurus (Moor; Mauretanian) derived from the Greek word Mauros derived from the Greek word mauros Derivations in Latin maurellus
If you notice all of the different variations of Mor remain consistent in sound and appearance as for Black, Negro, etc. For those that believe Moor means Black, the Spanish for Black is not Moro, Mauro or Moros but Negro or Negros, the French word for Black and Negro is not More or Maure, but Noir. What many illiterate individuals have a problem understanding is that simply because a Moor’s skin is described as Black or Negro, that said description does not Constitute the Moors Identity, Pedigree or parentage and the same is for those who chose to use the Euro-Anthropologic created terms Negroid to describe the Moors scientifically when they are technically described as being Caucasoid and both terms are defined by linguistics not skin complexion. These terms are Xenonyms.
What many African American or Black Americans have not been educated on is the fact that in 1441 the Portugeese started appying the term Negro to Moors they captured from the coast of Mauretania, this occurs about 51 years before the loss of Al Andalus i.e. Moorish Spain. Thus Free Moors were not booked as Negros but Moors who were captured were booked as Negros and this is partially why the terms Black, Negro have an association with Slave Status and or Criminality. As the portugeese holding to their Christian faith viewed the Moors as infidels because they did not believe Christ to be the Son of God and several other distinctions that existed between Islamic Doctrine and Christiandom Doctrine.
There are Moorish Americans who wrongly and blindly believe that Moabite is a synonym for Moroccan. This belief derives from the MSTA Questionnaire for Children, although many adults believe these questions and answers. Moabite is not the ancient name for Moroccan. But Cushite is the Ancient name for Moor as can be seen above or to be more precise the Hebrew i.e. Semetic Name for the English “Moor”.
Moors do possess Canaanite (Phoenician) ancestry however the Moabites were not the only group of Canaanites and historically the Women were absorbed by the Nabaateans (founders of Kuffic/Arabic) and many of there men were killed by the Israelite’s during battle. The Moabites as a Nation existed in the early half of 1st millennium BCE. They were conquered by the Isarealites. The Talmud expresses the view that the prohibition only applied to male Moabite, who were not allowed to marry born Jews or legitimate converts. Female Moabites, when converted to Judaism, were permitted to marry with only the normal prohibition of a convert marrying a kohen (priest) applying.
The etymology of the word Moab is uncertain. The earliest gloss is found in the Septuagint which explains the name, in obvious allusion to the account of Moab’s parentage, as ἐκ τοῦ πατρός μου. Other etymologies which have been proposed regard it as a corruption of “seed of a father”, or as a participial form from “to desire”, thus connoting “the desirable (land)”. Rashi explains the word Mo’ab to mean “from the father”, since ab in Hebrew and Arabic and the rest of the Semitic languages means “father”. He writes that as a result of the immodesty of Moab’s name, God didn’t command the Jews to refrain from inflicting pain upon the Moabites in the manner in which he did with regards to the Ammonites. Fritz Hommel regards Moab as an abbreviation ofImmo-ab = “his mother is his father
Compare the Heberw Script for Moab with the Hebrew Script for Kush Moab (ˈmoʊæb/; Moabite: Mʾb; Arabic مؤاب Mu’āb; Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Modern Mo’av, Tiberian Môʼāḇ ; “seed of father”; Greek Μωάβ Mōáb; Assyrian Mu’aba, Ma’ba, Ma’ab; Egyptian Mu’ab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in Jordan.
Cush is traditionally considered the eponymous ancestor of the people of the “land of Cush,” an ancient territory that is believed to have been located on either side or both sides of the Red Sea. As such, “Cush” is alternately identified in Scripture with the kingdom of Meroë, ancient Aethiopia, and/or the Arabian peninsula.
Morocco country in northwest Africa, from Italian, from Berber Marrakesh (properly the name of the city of Marrakesh), from Arabic Maghrib-al-Aqsa “Extreme West.” Compare FrenchMaroc, German Marokko. In English, the first vowel has been altered, apparently by influence of Moor. Related: Moroccan. See the Etymology Dictionary
Moor (n.) “North African, Berber,” late 14c., from Old French More, from Medieval Latin Morus, from Latin Maurus “inhabitant of Mauritania” (northwest Africa, a region now corresponding to northern Algeria and Morocco), from Greek Mauros, perhaps a native name, or else cognate with mauros “black” (but this adjective only appears in late Greek and may as well be from the people’s name as the reverse). Being a dark people in relation to Europeans, their name in the Middle Ages was a synonym for “Negro;” later (16c.-17c.) used indiscriminately of Muslims (Persians, Arabs, etc.) but especially those in India. See theEtymology Dictionary
Moab was not listed among the peoples in the aforementioned Table of Nations and as Canaanites are ultimately Kushites or descendants of Kushites rather through their Canaanite ancestry. Genesis 36:35 references Moab as a country.
Hebrew scholar David M. Goldenberg has suggested that the Hebrew name is derived from Kash, the Egyptian name of Lower Nubia and later of the Nubian kingdom at Napata, known as the Kingdom of Kush.
The form Kush appears in Egyptian records as early as the reign of Mentuhotep II (21st century BC), in an inscription detailing his campaigns against the Nubian region. At the time of the compilation of the Hebrew Bible, and throughout classical antiquity, the Nubian kingdom was centered at Meroe in the modern-day nation of Sudan. Scholars like Johann Michaelis and Rosenmuller have pointed out that the name Cush was applied to tracts of country on both sides of the Red Sea, in the Arabian Peninsula (Yemen) and Northeast Africa. Masudi‘s The Meadows of Gold (947 AD); Wahb ibn Munabbih (738) included among Cush’s offspring “the “Qaran”, the Zaghawa, the Habesha, the Qibt, and the Barbar“.
The Berbers were called Al-Barbar by the Arabs, the early modern Barbary seems to be a re-adoption of the name from Arabic. Muslim historiography has an eponymous Barbar as the ancestor of the Berbers, “the Berbers were the descendants of Barbar, the son of Tamalla, the son of Mazigh, the son of Canaan , the son of Ham, the son of Noah” (Ibn Khaldun, The History of Ibn Khaldun, Chapter 3). See Berbers were the descendants of Barbar.
The name Kush (Cush) can be found from India to Africa and the Middle East. They were the founders of many great civilizations including ancient Egypt. And they have a significant presence in scriptures. It is noteworthy that some of them, like the Ethiopians and the Canaanites, spoke Semitic, and not Hamitic, languages–Seba (if connected with the Sabeans), Havilah (Yemen), and Sheba, whose queen visited Solomon. Professor Archibald Sayce, moreover, has pointed out that Caphtor (the original country of the Philistines before their emigration into Palestine) is the original home of the Phoenicians (Canaanites), who spoke a Semitic language.
A “Biblical Canaan/Ham” needs to be distinguished from the historical Canaan/Ham (or a “historical Israel” from a “literary” or “Biblical Israel”) because the Hebrew Bible contrasts the Canaanites from the nation of Israel, while historically and archaeologically, the kingdoms of Israel and Judah were a subset of Canaanite/Hamitic culture. Therefore, the Hamitic racial strain and the Shemitic (Semitic) racial strain are but one race. This may explain the Quranic silence on the issue. How do we account for Semitic languages being spoken of in Hamitic lands and visa versa? The 20th -century language scholar, Frederick Bodmer17, added: “Though the Semitic and Hamitic group diverge widely, their kinship is generally recognized. They share more root-words than can be explained by borrowing; and they have some common grammatical peculiarities.” Russian scholars and linguists of the 1960s (e.g. V.V Shevoroshkin), concluded that there must have been a single original Mother Tongue. See Kush in the Quran
This section of our website is dedicated informing interested parties of the findings concluded by Murakush derived from research and analysis of several topics and points of interest as it relates to the heritage, history and culture of the Moors.